Ubuntu16.04下, 使用Nginx和Unicorn部署Rails App

写在前面

之前用过Nginx + Passengers来部署Rails 应用, 这次换Nginx + Unicorn部署了Rails App,过程虽有些波折,但结果还是蛮赞的。【其实折腾了大半天,最后终于重新从坑里爬出来了,还多亏老大帮忙看了下……】

下面以一个简单的rails项目的部署为例,来感受下Nginx + Unicorn。

【如果你也和我一样是枚小白,补充下,这里,Unicorn是一个HTTP server,类似Passenger或者puma。由于Unicorn不能直接被用户访问,使用Nginx作为反向代理,来缓冲用户与Rails应用之间的请求与响应。】

正文

1、准备Rails App
  • 本地新建一个rails项目recipes

    rails new recipes
    cd recipes
    git init
    git add .
    git commit -m "new project recipes"
    # 将recipes托管到第三方代码库,这里选GitHub
    git remote add origin https://github.com/XXXXX/recipes.git
    git push -u origin master
    rails g scaffold topic title:string description:text
    rake db:migrate
    git add .
    git commit -m "create topic model"
    rails s
    

    修改config/routes.rb,把主页设定成topic的index, 添加root "topics#index"

    Rails.application.routes.draw do
      resources :topics
     + root "topics#index"
    end
    

    这时,在浏览器打开http://localhost:3000/,画风是这样的:

    git add .
    git commit -m "update routes"
    git push
    
  • 添加gem: unicorn, foreman, dotenv-rails

    终端运行:

    bundler install
    

    添加config/deploy.rb, 内容如下:

    【repo_url 换成你自己的URL】

    根目录下添加Procfile 文件,内容如下:

    git add .
    git commit -m "add unicorn to project"
    git push
    

    将所有进度push至remote, 好,我们开始部署!

2、安装套件

这里以Ubuntu16.04为例,假定你已经添加一个免密登陆的用户deploy,我们将项目部署在home/deploy下。

  • 登陆服务器,更新,升级:

    sudo apt-get update -y
    sudo apt-get upgrade -y
    
  • 裝套件,这些是Ruby on Rails 需要的:

    sudo apt-get install -y build-essential git-core bison openssl libreadline6-dev curl zlib1g zlib1g-dev libssl-dev libyaml-dev libsqlite3-0 libsqlite3-dev sqlite3 autoconf libc6-dev libpcre3-dev libcurl4-nss-dev libxml2-dev libxslt-dev imagemagick nodejs libffi-dev
    

    如果安装的nodejs版本低,尝试这样:

    #nodejs v9
    curl -sL https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_9.x | sudo -E bash -
    sudo apt-get install -y nodejs
    
  • 裝Ruby

    检查版本:

    ruby --version
    

    如果有旧的版本,比如1.8/1.9, 卸载掉:

    sudo apt-get remove -y ruby1.8 ruby1.9
    

    下载,解压,编译,安装:

    mkdir /tmp/ruby && cd /tmp/ruby
    wget https://cache.ruby-lang.org/pub/ruby/ruby-2.4.0.tar.gz
    tar -xzvf ruby-2.4.0.tar.gz
    cd ruby-2.4.0/
    ./configure --prefix=/usr
    make
    sudo make install
    
    ruby -v
    
    # 处理SSL问题,加入国内gems镜像
    gem sources --add http://gems.ruby-china.org/ --remove https://rubygems.org/
    # 如果报错:uninitialized constant Gem::RemoteFetcher::Zlib, 则执行:sudo apt-get install zlib1g-dev
    
    gem sources -l
    
    sudo gem install bundler --no-ri --no-rdoc --source https://gems.ruby-china.org
    

    戳这里pub ruby 查看ruby最新版本。

  • 装 foreman gems:

    sudo gem install rake bundler foreman --no-ri --no-rdoc
    
  • 装runit:

    sudo apt-get install runit
    
  • 裝SQL:

    sudo apt-get install mysql-common mysql-client libmysqlclient-dev mysql-server
    

    执行过程中会让你配置一个数据库的 root 密码, 记下来,设定rails的数据库时会用到。

    建新的数据库:

    执行mysql -u root -p 进入console, 输入:

    CREATE DATABASE recipes CHARACTER SET utf8mb4;
    

    创建user deploy,并给user分配数据库 recipes的权限, 把$password 替换成你自己设置的密码:

    CREATE USER 'deploy'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY '$password';
    GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE, DROP, INDEX, ALTER, LOCK TABLES ON `recipes`.* TO 'deploy'@'localhost';
    exit
    

    退出SQL的session后,尝试连接一下数据库:

    sudo mysql -u deploy -p -D recipes
    

    这时会让你输入密码,输入刚刚替换$password的密码即可。

3、部署项目
  • clone项目到服务器

    deploy身份登陆,执行:

    sudo git clone //github.com/XXXXX/recipes.git recipes
    cd recipes
    ls -la
    

    如果recipes下面文件的owner不是deploy,执行:

    sudo chown deploy:deploy . -R
    

    确保deploy对recipes下的文件拥有读写权限,不然后面部署时会失败

    配置文件:

    sudo mkdir -p log tmp/pids tmp/sockets
    sudo chown -R deploy log/ tmp/
    sudo chmod -R u+rwX,go-w log/ tmp/
    sudo chmod -R u+rwX,go-w log/
    sudo chmod -R u+rwX tmp/
    touch .env
    touch config/unicorn.rb
    

    配置.env:

    # ==== Required configuration settings  ====
    
    # Replace the following with the output from "rake secret"
    APP_SECRET_TOKEN=REPLACE_ME_NOW!
    
    ############################
    #      Database Setup      #
    ############################
    
    DATABASE_ADAPTER=mysql2
    DATABASE_ENCODING=utf8
    DATABASE_RECONNECT=true
    DATABASE_NAME=recipes
    DATABASE_POOL=20
    DATABASE_USERNAME=deploy
    DATABASE_PASSWORD="your_password"
    #DATABASE_HOST=your-domain-here.com
    #DATABASE_PORT=3306
    #DATABASE_SOCKET=/tmp/mysql.sock
    
    # MySQL only: If you are running a MySQL server >=5.5.3, you should
    # set DATABASE_ENCODING to utf8mb4 instead of utf8 so that the
    # database can hold 4-byte UTF-8 characters like emoji.
    #DATABASE_ENCODING=utf8mb4
    
    # ==== Additional required production settings ====
    
    # Configure Rails environment.  This should only be needed in production and may cause errors in development.
    RAILS_ENV=production
    
    # Should Rails force all requests to use SSL?
    FORCE_SSL=false
    # 设置SECRET_KEY_BASE,config/secrets.yml中有用到,用development的secret_key_base即可
    SECRET_KEY_BASE= your_devlopment_secret_key_base
    

    配置config/unicorn.rb

    wd = File.expand_path(File.join(File.dirname(__FILE__), '..'))
    
    app_path = wd
    
    worker_processes 2
    preload_app true
    timeout 180
    listen "#{wd}/tmp/sockets/unicorn.socket"
    
    working_directory app_path
    
    rails_env = ENV['RAILS_ENV'] || 'production'
    
    # Log everything to one file
    stderr_path "log/unicorn.log"
    stdout_path "log/unicorn.log"
    
    # Set master PID location
    pid "#{wd}/tmp/pids/unicorn.pid"
    
    before_fork do |server, worker|
      ActiveRecord::Base.connection.disconnect!
      old_pid = "#{server.config[:pid]}.oldbin"
      if File.exist?(old_pid) && server.pid != old_pid
        begin
          Process.kill("QUIT", File.read(old_pid).to_i)
        rescue Errno::ENOENT, Errno::ESRCH
          # someone else did our job for us
        end
      end
    end
    
    after_fork do |server, worker|
      ActiveRecord::Base.establish_connection
    end
    

    安装gems:

    sudo bundle install --deployment --without development test
    

    migrate 数据库:

    sudo bundle exec rake db:migrate RAILS_ENV=production
    

    编译assets:

    sudo bundle exec rake assets:precompile RAILS_ENV=production
    

    修改Procfile:

    sudo vi Procfile
    

    注释掉Procfile这两行:

    web: bundle exec rails server -p ${PORT-3000} -b ${IP-0.0.0.0}
    jobs: bundle exec rails runner bin/threaded.rb
    

    同时取消对Procfile这两行的注释:

    # web: bundle exec unicorn -c config/unicorn.rb
    # jobs: bundle exec rails runner bin/threaded.rb
    

    创建Unicorn的初始脚本:

    终端输入:

    sudo vi /etc/init.d/unicorn_recipes
    

    然后在文件中放入以下内容:

    #!/bin/sh
    
    ### BEGIN INIT INFO
    # Provides:          unicorn
    # Required-Start:    $all
    # Required-Stop:     $all
    # Default-Start:     2 3 4 5
    # Default-Stop:      0 1 6
    # Short-Description: starts the unicorn app server
    # Description:       starts unicorn using start-stop-daemon
    ### END INIT INFO
    
    set -e
    
    USAGE="Usage: $0 <start|stop|restart|upgrade|rotate|force-stop>"
    
    # app settings
    USER="deploy"
    APP_NAME="recipes"
    APP_ROOT="/home/$USER/$APP_NAME"
    ENV="production"
    
    # environment settings
    PATH="/home/$USER/.rbenv/shims:/home/$USER/.rbenv/bin:$PATH"
    CMD="cd $APP_ROOT && bundle exec unicorn -c config/unicorn.rb -E $ENV -D"
    PID="$APP_ROOT/tmp/pids/unicorn.pid"
    OLD_PID="$PID.oldbin"
    
    # make sure the app exists
    cd $APP_ROOT || exit 1
    
    sig () {
      test -s "$PID" && kill -$1 `cat $PID`
    }
    
    oldsig () {
      test -s $OLD_PID && kill -$1 `cat $OLD_PID`
    }
    
    case $1 in
      start)
        sig 0 && echo >&2 "Already running" && exit 0
        echo "Starting $APP_NAME"
        su - $USER -c "$CMD"
        ;;
      stop)
        echo "Stopping $APP_NAME"
        sig QUIT && exit 0
        echo >&2 "Not running"
        ;;
      force-stop)
        echo "Force stopping $APP_NAME"
        sig TERM && exit 0
        echo >&2 "Not running"
        ;;
      restart|reload|upgrade)
        sig USR2 && echo "reloaded $APP_NAME" && exit 0
        echo >&2 "Couldn't reload, starting '$CMD' instead"
        $CMD
        ;;
      rotate)
        sig USR1 && echo rotated logs OK && exit 0
        echo >&2 "Couldn't rotate logs" && exit 1
        ;;
      *)
        echo >&2 $USAGE
        exit 1
        ;;
    esac
    

    更改权限,并设置可以在boot上启动:

    sudo chmod 755 /etc/init.d/unicorn_recipes
    sudo update-rc.d unicorn_recipes defaults
    

    开启:

    sudo /etc/init.d/unicorn_recipes start
    

    检查unicorn的状态:

    sudo service unicorn status
    

    设置logrotate:

    sudo vi /etc/logrotate.d/recipes
    

    内容如下:

    /home/deploy/recipes/log/*.log {
      daily
      missingok
      rotate 180
      # must use with delaycompress below
      compress
      dateext
    
      # this is important if using "compress" since we need to call
      # the "lastaction" script below before compressing:
      delaycompress
    
      # note the lack of the evil "copytruncate" option in this
      # config.  Unicorn supports the USR1 signal and we send it
      # as our "lastaction" action:
      lastaction
        pid=/home/deploy/recipes/tmp/pids/unicorn.pid
        test -s $pid && kill -USR1 "$(cat $pid)"
      endscript
    }
    

    如果提示readonly, 无法写入,使用chmod或者chown来获取读写权限。

  • 安装Ngnix

    sudo apt-get install -y nginx
    

    查看版本:

    nginx -v
    

    在/etc/nginx/sites-available下,新增recipes文件:

    sudo vi /etc/nginx/sites-available/recipes
    

    内容如下:

    ###################################
    ##         configuration         ##
    ###################################
    ##
    ## See installation.md#using-https for additional HTTPS configuration details.
    
    upstream recipes {
      server unix:/home/deploy/recipes/tmp/sockets/unicorn.socket fail_timeout=0;
    }
    
    ## Normal HTTP host
    server {
      listen 0.0.0.0:80 default_server;
      listen [::]:80 ipv6only=on default_server;
      server_name 101.132.151.71; ## 这里填域名,如果没有,填服务器 IP 位置
      server_tokens off; ## Don't show the nginx version number, a security best practice
      root /home/deploy/recipes/public;
    
      ## Increase this if you want to upload large attachments
      client_max_body_size 20m;
    
      ## Individual nginx logs for vhost
      access_log  /var/log/nginx/recipes_access.log;
      error_log   /var/log/nginx/recipes_error.log;
    
      location / {
        ## Serve static files from defined root folder.
        ## @huginn is a named location for the upstream fallback, see below.
        try_files $uri $uri/index.html $uri.html @recipes;
      }
    
      ## If a file, which is not found in the root folder is requested,
      ## then the proxy passes the request to the upsteam (huginn unicorn).
      location @recipes {
        ## If you use HTTPS make sure you disable gzip compression
        ## to be safe against BREACH attack.
        # gzip off;
    
        proxy_read_timeout      300;
        proxy_connect_timeout   300;
        proxy_redirect          off;
    
        proxy_set_header    Host                $http_host;
        proxy_set_header    X-Real-IP           $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header    X-Forwarded-For     $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header    X-Forwarded-Proto   $scheme;
        proxy_set_header    X-Frame-Options     SAMEORIGIN;
    
        proxy_pass http://recipes;
      }
    
      ## Enable gzip compression as per rails guide:
      ## http://guides.rubyonrails.org/asset_pipeline.html#gzip-compression
      ## WARNING: If you are using relative urls remove the block below
      ## See config/application.rb under "Relative url support" for the list of
      ## other files that need to be changed for relative url support
      location ~ ^/(assets)/ {
        root /home/deploy/recipes/public;
        gzip_static on; # to serve pre-gzipped version
        expires max;
        add_header Cache-Control public;
      }
    
      error_page 502 /502.html;
    }
    

    建立links:

    sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/recipes /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/recipes
    

    删除default:

    sudo rm /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default
    

    测试设置:

    sudo nginx -t
    

    会弹出syntax is ok 和test is successful的信息,终端运行:

    sudo service nginx restart
    

最后的效果:

「终于出来了,太不容易了……」

P.S

如果sudo service nginx restart没有任何反应,可以检查以下路径的log:

cd /var/log/nginx
cd recipes/log

参考

How To Deploy a Rails App with Unicorn and Nginx on Ubuntu 14.04

Use Unicorn and Nginx to Configure Ruby on Rails Applications on Ubuntu 14.04

Huginn install guide for Ubuntu/Debian