Yale《listening to music》刷课笔记

长路漫漫。

Professor Wright 在第一课里说:Four months from now, You’ll know all of this stuff.

呃,鉴于我目前的懵逼程度,乐观点,4年吧:P

整个课程共23个lecture,边刷边更……

[2020-01-27]

Lecture 01 Introduction

按照课程大纲的顺序记录下。

  • Introduction to Listening to music

    Are you getting the most out of your listening experience?

  • Why listen to classical music?

    National Public Radio 针对该问题的调查结果:

    Why would we want to listen to classical music?

    • It helps us relax and relieve stress
    • It helps us center the mind, allowing the listener to concentrate
    • classical music provides a vision of a better world

    对于 Professor Wright 本人来说:

    It suggests that there might be something out there. God or whatever , bigger than ourselves.

    and it asks us to think sometimes, think about things. That’s what I think these great fine arts do, great literature, poetry, painting, music. They show what human beings can be, the capacity of the human spirit. They suggest to us as indicated maybe there is something, a larger spirit out there than ourselves, and they get us to think. They get me to think frequently about what I’m doing on this earth.

    So, what is professor trying to accomplish in here? : P

    Two things.

    • change your personality
    • impart to you a love of classical music

    Pop music VS classical music

    • pop music: reputation, rhythm and beat, strong pulsation, while classical music has melody
    • their instruments are different
  • Course Requirements and Pedagogy

    介绍了下教授自己的那本书,第五版的《listening to music》,提到了一句:….about to come out in a Chinese edition for heaven’s sakes。笑喷。顺手查了下,这本书在amzon上的最新版本是第七版,已有中文版。

    后面介绍了下 six-CD set.【want it……】

    这里觉得重要的点:

    • Music is an aurally perceived phenomenon.most of the music and language processing happens in these left and right auditory cortex【音乐是一种听觉现象,大脑中处理语言和音乐的部分都在听觉皮层,懵逼ing……】
    • Daily participation in language labs required. So daily is the key thing here. You’ve got to do this gradual assimilation. So learning to listen to music is just like listening to language. We’ve got to do a little bit every day.
  • Diagnositc Quiz

    一个quiz,播放两首piece:

    Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony「贝多芬的第五交响曲」「L group / Minor chords / disjunct music」

    Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony「贝多芬的第九交响曲」 「R group / Major chords / conjunct music」

    Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony was the setting of a poem by Friedrich Schiller called Ode to Joy.

    【我暂时还不能从这不安的曲子中听出Joy的味道……】

    R group: positive, happy, secure.

    L group: negative, anxious, unsettled.

    为什么可以区分出一个曲子是R group 还是 L group?

    它们有如下的不同:

    • Major chords versus Minor chords: 大调 和 小调

      Major: bright

      Minor: dark

    • conjunct music versus disjunct music: 级进音乐 VS 跳进音乐

    • home pitch / tonic pitch: strongly felt tonal「音调」 key

      Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony 没有 home pitch,「 听教授的那句:bang!!! 感受下」

      May be that’s why it sounds so disjunct and so unsettled.

      而Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony 则 有home pitch, feel sort of secure in that home pitch.

    • direction

      Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony 的方向是 down

      Debussy 的 moonlight Clair de Lune 就是很典型的down.

  • pitch

    音乐的两个维度:pitch, time/duration

    这里举 Richard Strauss’s Also Sarach Zarathustra:

    一个qiuz, what is the keyboard instrument is playing in it?

    the brass instrument is a trumpet 「铜管乐器部分是一个小号」

    the percussion instrument is timpani 「打击乐器部分是定音鼓」

    【注意Richard Strauss’s Also Sarach Zarathustra的最后,可以听出有管风琴organ!还挺明显的】

    「乐理这块完全听不懂,懵逼ing…….」

    octave: 八度音阶

  • rhythm

    duple meter:双拍子,one two, one two…. one strong beat, one weak beat, strong weak, strong weak ….

    triple meter: 三拍子, strong weak, weak, strong weak, weak, strong weak, weak ….

[2020-01-30]

Lecture 02 Introduction to Instruments and Musical Genres

Lecture1的练习作业:

Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony in C minor Op.67

Tchaikovsky’s Piano Concerto Number One in B flat minor Op.23

Richard Strauss‘s Also Sprach Zarathustra

  • distinguishing songs from pieces

    song with lyrics. eighty percent of classical music is purely instrumental music.

    symphony【交响乐定义】

    Symphonies generally have four movements. 【四个乐章】

    What’s a movement? Well, a movement is simply an independent piece that works oftentimes. They are independent yet they are complementary.

    symphonies have these four movements and they usually operate in the following way:

    • A fast opening movement;
    • a slower, more lyrical second movement;
    • then a third movement that’s derived from dance;
    • and then a fourth movement that’s sort of again “up tempo,” fast, emphatic conclusion.

    Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony 有 4 个movement【四乐章交响曲】,总时长在30-40分钟。

    1. 有生气的快板(Allegro con brio)
    2. 稍快的行板(Andante con moto)
    3. 谐谑曲:快板(Scherzo: Allegro)
    4. 快板(Allegro)
  • Genres, Motives, and Themes

    【Genre :音乐体裁】

    A motive is just a little cell, a germ, out of which the composer will build other musical material.【动机】

    【聆听 Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony第一乐章开头部分,short, short, short, long】

    Themes tend maybe a little bit more lyrical.

    【聆听 Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony 第二乐章】

    Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony第三乐章 呼应着 第一乐章的motive, 还挺明显的。

    Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony第四乐章,小号trumpets 加入, sort of upbeat, positive.

    in this 40-minute interval we’ve gone sort of through an emotional musical journey here from despair, despondency, uncertainty, to whatever- to personal triumph, and in a way that mirrors some of the things that were going on in Beethoven’s life.

    concerto【协奏曲】

    three movements.

    Tchaikovsky’s Piano Concerto Number One【柴可夫斯基第一钢琴协奏曲】,总时长在30分钟左右。

    第1乐章:不太快的和极其庄严的快板—生气勃勃的快板(Allegro non troppo e molto maestoso - Allegro con spirito)

    第2乐章:朴素的小行板—最急板—初速(Andantino simplice - Prestissimo)

    第3乐章:火热的快板(Allegro con fuoco)

  • Introduction to the French Horn and Partials

    展示了乐器:French Horn, Eva Heater 老师吹了下 Zarathustra 开头的小号部分。

  • The Bassoon and the Viola

    展示了巴松管和小提琴。

  • Mussorgsky and the Basic Principles of Acoustics

    播放 Modest Musorgsky work Pictures at an Exhibition 中的Polish Oxcart【牛车来了又去了……】

    Doppler principle: 多普勒效应。

  • Dissonance and Consonance in Strauss’s Death and Transfiguration

    Richard Strauss’s Death and Transfiguration中的Dissonance and Consonance 【完全懵逼……】

    With dissonant intervals they tend to be frequencies that are sounding right next to each other, very close-by frequencies [间隔很短?]

    If you allow a little bit of spacing, a little more space between your frequencies, they’re a little bit farther apart, then you can move from closeness to spacing and you get the consonance.

    【这里Mark下,期待后期听多了可以 get 到点上】

    [2020-02-03]

    Lecture 03 Rhythm: Fundamentals

    【简直迷上了Ravel 的 Bolero。】

    这节课两件事:

    • Advantages and Disadvantages of Musical Notation

      乐谱的优缺点。

      Advantages:

      • it allows the composer to specify rather precisely what he or she wants, to sort of write things out in the form of musical details. 【便于作曲家创作,也便于有才华的作曲家被认可,不致埋没】
      • It allows us to preserve the work of art.【we can bring it back to life】

      【想起《触不可及》里面,菲利普一脸严肃地说艺术是人作为生命的过客能在世上留下的唯一痕迹。】

    ​ 这里播放了一段伊斯兰教Islamic的Adhan 片段 和 Chuck Mangione 与乐队即兴发挥的sax solo。

    ​ 【Adhan 部分,呃,建议白天听,晚上听可能需要点胆子,Youtube上有完整版】

    • Beats and Meters

      介绍音乐的脉搏,节拍 和 节奏。

      the idea of pulse in music and the beat in the music and rhythms in music.

      whole note = 4 * quarter notes

      this whole note obviously can be subdivided into two half notes and each of the half notes into two quarter notes, each of these quarter notes into two eighth notes, and so on.

      Rests: 休止符,represent the absence of sound。

      Pulse: music theorists have said that the pulse in music is basically at the same tempo as the human pulse. 【音乐的脉搏同人类的脉搏?72拍/分钟】

      In this course, only play with two types of meter, duple and triple.

      Two things focus on:

      • differentiate between duple and triple meter
      • recognize some very basic rhythmic patterns
  • Exercises Distinguishing Duple and Triple Meters

    Duple: strong, weak, strong, weak, strong, weak…….

    Triple: strong, weak, weak, strong, weak, weak, strong, weak, weak…….

    Exercises:

    • Duple: Yale fight song: Bulldog [written by Cole Porter]
    • Triple: plays piano
  • Conducting Basic Meter Patterns: Exercises with REM, Chopin, and Ravel

    Downbeat: The first part of the bar.【真的是很懵逼……】

    在downbeat 之前有一小段音乐,叫做 pick-up,类似跳水运动员跳水前的准备动作。

    all music has a downbeat, not all music starts with a downbeat. Sometimes when listening to music you have to wait. 【好了,连 downbeat 是啥都不清楚,怎么找?】

    there are four principal ways that composers signal to us the where abouts of the downbeat.

    • That has to do with duration.【short, long, long 拖的比较长】
    • through accent【Mozart’s Fortieth Symphony in G Minor, 第一乐章 2/2, 高pitch前的那段?】
    • through patterns of accompaniment【 waltz by Johann Strauss,懵逼ing…..】
    • by means of chord change 【一段 REM的 pop music, 彻底懵逼,不知道change的点在哪里……】

    rhythm practice: Chopin‘ piece

    【change key后面那段,41:49 ~ 42:16,lovely, 感觉像是Nocturne in E Flat Major Op. 9 No. 2,先Mark下】

    这里教授调侃了下自己,哈哈.

    最后的练习曲目:Maurice Ravel’s Bolero.【真的是很特别,小白都被迷住了】

    Maurice Ravel was a French composer writing in the early twentieth century. It’s a unique piece because what he does is take some very basic patterns and simply repeats them over and over and over again for about fourteen and a half minutes depending upon the tempo that the conductor is taking the music.

    【感觉全程最苦的是鼓手:P】

[2020-02-04]

Lecture 04 Rhythm: Jazz, Pop and Classical

【这一课估计要刷好几遍……I’ll be back】

  • Introduction to Multiple Partials

    一段热身,回顾 duple 和 triple。

    后面教授讲了一段有关sound的问题。

    So when we hear any particular sound, again, we’re hearing an amalgam of many sounds, and the importance of each of these partials in the aggregate of sound is what gives it its particular color. 【不懂】

  • Syncopation and Triplets

    切分音和三连音。【懵逼ing……】

    What’s tempo in music?

    It’s the pace or speed of the beat.

    节拍渐进增强:accelerando 【 fancy Italian term】

    越来越慢的节拍:ritardando

    What is Syncopation?

    It is simply the insertion of an impulse, a “hit” if you will, at a metrical place that we do not expect it to be.

    Scott Joplin 是在作品中运用 syncopation 的高手。【虽然还是听不出来syncopation到底在哪……】

    practice:The Entertainer 【不得不说,前奏简直要跪!】

    What is Triplets?

    a triplet is simply insertion of three notes in the place of two, not more complicated than that.

  • Basics of Musical Texture

    【这一章节彻底懵逼】

    what is Texture?

    Texture in music is the dispositions of the musical lines.

    three fundamental textures:

    • monophonic texture

    • homophonic texture

      it all lines up pretty much together; all the parts are changing together.

    • polyphonic texture

      a lot of lines going their own way.

      Two types:

      • imitative polyphonic texture 【imitative:仿效的,模仿的】

      • free counterpoint

        这里教授提到了巴赫喜欢的对位counterpoint,播放了一段 Louis Armstrong 的作品,来说明free counterpoint。

        随后播放了一段Johnny Dodds的作品。

    Practice: rhythmic dictation 【听写节奏】

    教授举了两个Mozart的例子来说明天才果然是天才……

    练习的曲子来自:Great Gate of Kiev from Pictures at an Exhibition

  • Mozart’s Requiem: Insights on Varying Textures and Pitches

    最后的压轴:the “Lacrimosa” out of the “Dies irae” out of the Requiem Mass of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart written in Vienna seventeen 1791

    Mozart’s Requiem: Mozart 安魂曲,1791,Mozart 因病离世,安魂曲尚未完成,由其学生补全。

    mass【弥撒曲】 同 symphony 【交响乐】,concerto【协奏曲】一样,也是音乐体裁的一种。

    the rhythm picture:

    the rhythm associates with the damned:

    The bass rhythm is moving very quickly, it is also going up. It keeps rising up. This builds tension.

    Pretty skippy music / Very dissonant music / Minor

    the rhythm associates with the prayer:

    It’s consonant, it’s in major, it’s high and, most important, the rhythm is very uncomplicated. The notes are long and slow.

    欣赏:

    Now the basses.

    Now the quiet prayer.

    Change to major.

    Now the modulation — change of key from major to — back to minor as the cortege will start up again。[modulation]

    A nice clarinet sound there and here comes our cortege with the bass. [单簧管响起,低音部分送葬乐队]

    Now just a final close, a cadence.

    最后教授来了句,Dancing to heaven. 哈哈。

[2020-02-05]

Lecture 05 Melody: Notes, Scales, Nuts and Bolts

  • The Nature of Melody

    melody shows up in the high range.

    Reason:

    because the way sound waves operate.

    The higher frequencies take a lot shorter time to clear.

    melodies play faster notes because those sounds clear quickly and we can hear and enjoy the melody.

  • The Development of Notes and the Scale

    五线谱,每条线之间的frequency /space 是一样的。

    重复八度:octave duplication。

    很多国家的音乐中,都应用了octave duplication.

    west: ABCDEFG,seven notes within the octave.

    Indonesia: six notes within the octave.

    Example: Ravi Shankar’s raga, 用的乐器 sitar 是一种类似吉他的印度弦乐器

    China: five-note within the octave.

    Example: 阿炳的《二泉映月》

    简介古希腊人处理音乐的方式。

    ancient Greeks were very much into mathematics as a way of explaining the world and explaining music in particular.

    【这段暂时不懂,待消化书上的内容。】

  • Major, Minor, and Chromatic Scales in World Music

    • seven notes within the scale of the major scale

    • seven notes within the scale of the minor scale

    音阶:在八度之内,音的上行和下行的一种固定形式。可以把它想象成一个有八级的梯子,在固定的高和低的两个点之间,由八度形成,可以上或者下这个梯子。

    其中,除了BC,EF之间是半级,其他的都是一级。

    升号 sharp # VS 降号b flat【相当于键盘上的黑键音】

    升调是升半个scale,降调是降半个scale

    black notes, can be called sharps or flats. flats are below, take you down a half step, while sharps take you up a half step.

    C大调音阶:按钢琴上的白键 CDEFGABC,正好对应着 1-1-1/2-1-1-1-1/2

    C小调音阶:按钢琴上的白键CD,DE间的黑键降E,白键FG,GA间的黑键降A,AB间的黑键降B,白键C,正好对应着1-1/2-1-1-1/2-1-1, 即 C D E-flat F G A-flat B-flat C

    同理:

    A大调音阶:按钢琴上的白键AB,CD间的黑键升C,白键DE,FG间的黑键升F,GA间的黑键升G,白键A。即A B C-sharp D E F-sharp G-sharp A

    A小调音阶:白键 ABCDEFGA

    tonic note: the primary note

    leading tone:pull into the tonic,引出 tonic note,it is always the seventh degree. It’s always a half step.

    例子:Luciano Pavarotti 歌唱片段。

    Most of our popular music, folk songs and things like that, are written in duple meter and in a major key. Occasionally, you get things written in triple meter and in a minor key — minor key.

    example:Gershwin Porgy and Bess,【感觉是duple,minor】

    在古典音乐中,小调也是很少的,大部分都是大调。

    这里教授举了Beethoven’s Third Symphony 第二乐章 minor部分和 Mozart 的作品片段 。

    Major: happy, bright, optimistic.

    Minor: somber. 【灰暗,昏暗】

    大调和小调的形成历史介绍:

    back to sixteenth century, people started writing these things called madrigals, that were tied to texts. And they got in this habit of, every time they had a bright, happy text, they’d set this in one kind of mode or key — a major mode — and every time they had a sad one, they’d set it in minor.

    后面教授放了一段犹太人的音乐Traditional Jewish folk music【major 和 minor 之间的界线有点懵逼】

    chromatic scale: 半音阶,chromatic 来自希腊语chroma色彩,附加的五个音高的确为音乐增加了色彩。

    半音阶会增加紧张和不安。

    chromaticism adds tension to music and especially chromaticism that’s pulling up.

  • Pitch and Rhythm in Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony

    这一段完全就是应用前面的所学了。

    Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony 第一乐章,前面部分。

    乐器:低音提琴,巴松管,小提琴。

    texture织体: polyphonic.复式

    中间巴松管部分,是countpoint,【没听出来】

    低音部分的低音提琴,和声。

    后面加入了铜管乐器。

[2020-02-06]

Lecture 06 - Melody: Mozart and Wagner

  • What Makes a Melody Beautiful?

    教授回顾了下上节课的内容,后面提到了antecedent and consequent phrase structure【开头的句式和结束的句式?】

    and, so, what makes a melody beautiful?

    It’s sort of like the definition of pornography: you know it when you see it, or you know it when you hear it.

  • Puccini’s Gianni Schicchi: Cadences and Sequences

    Giacomo Puccini的歌剧 Gianni Schicchi 贾尼·斯基基

    查了下wiki,呃,这个人全名真的是超级长:

    贾科莫·安东尼奥·多米尼科·米凯莱·塞孔多·马利亚·普契尼(Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo María Puccini)【老师点名的时候得多辛苦】

    意大利作曲家,主要代表作:《波希米亚人》、《托斯卡》与《蝴蝶夫人》等歌剧,这些歌剧当中的一些歌曲已经成为了现代文化的一部分,其中包括了《贾尼·斯基基》的《亲爱的爸爸》与《图兰朵》中的《今夜无人入睡》在内。

    这里,教授选的就是《贾尼·斯基基》的《亲爱的爸爸》,是作品中的咏叹调。

    【网易云上有完整的曲子,评论部分真的是笑死人,三个字总结了这段《亲爱的爸爸》:爸,打钱。】

    deceptive cadence:假终止。Where you’re expecting to go this way, but we go that way.

  • Wagner’s Tristan and Isolde: Exploring Melodic Ascents and Descents

    melodic sequence:

    simply the repetition of a musical motive at a successively higher or lower degree of the scale.

    two kinds:

    • ascending melodic sequence[音越来越高,going up, tension]
    • descending melodic sequence [音越来越低,going down, relaxation]

    欣赏 Wagner 的歌剧Tristan und Isolde 的前奏曲 prelude 和咏叹调aria 伊索尔德之死 liebestod

    摘自wiki上对于 特里斯坦与伊索尔德 Tristan und Isolde歌剧的介绍:

    一部三幕剧, 是瓦格纳和马蒂尔德·维森东克的恋情写照,马蒂尔德·维森东克是其赞助人维森东克的妻子。情节最早来源于凯尔特人的故事集中关于阿图斯国王与特里斯坦的传说。

    教授似乎不喜欢Wagner,Richard Wagner — not a very nice man, needless to say.

    前奏部分:ascending/rising melodic sequence, highly chromatic music.

    it uses this sequence to work up to a climax, hits a dissonance, resolves it into consonance. each level gets higher and higher in the violins, the trumpets come in, almost kind of like a snake rising through it.

    咏叹调 liebestod: This is not antecedent and consequent; this is a motive being pushed higher and higher each time to a climax. he used the dissonance. then he took it up two more degrees and folded it in to a consonance, so it was all very consonant at the end. 【从不和谐到和谐】We have deceptive cadences here, and we have another kind of cadence called an Amen cadence that brings an additional resonance — an additional symbolism to the conclusion.

  • Mozart’s Marriage of Figaro: Melodic Sequence Analysis

    aria of Mozart’s Marriage of Figaro,we’re going to see an example of rising melodic sequence in it.

    这次教授请来了一名大四学生Lauren Libaw, a very experienced singer, and a very, very good singer。

    【很美很可爱的小姐姐】

    歌唱的部分是童仆凯鲁比诺的咏叹调部分,此时凯鲁比诺十四岁,处于情窦初开的年龄,一看见女人就不知所措,这首是他为他心爱的女伯爵献歌,歌词大意:

    你们可知道,什么是爱情?

    女士们,我心中的那个可是爱吗?

    女士们,我心中的那个可是爱吗?

    我想把一切讲给你们听,

    它如此陌生,我对此一无所知,

    只感到心中翻腾不定;

    时而狂喜,时而消沉,

    我心中充满火样热情,

    一瞬间又感到寒冷如冰。

    这是超越自我的感觉,

    我无法自持,甚至不知它是什么,

    不知道为什么终日叹息,

    莫名其妙地颤抖心悸,

    日日夜夜不得安宁,

    但我竟沉醉于此无法自拔。

    你们可知道,什么是爱情?

    女士们,我心中的那个可是爱吗?

    女士们,我心中的那个可是爱吗?

    女士们,我心中的那个可是爱吗?

    赏析:【又名听不懂系列】

    Mozart starts out here with the antecedent and consequent phrase structure. it rises up through the rising melodic sequence.that’s the climax, the peak of the whole aria, and then the bass, And when we get back to the tonic, then it comes in. a deceptive cadence, And then we have our flyover,And that’s the way it ends. So you come back to the tonic, okay? We’ve arrived. We’ve landed.

    Lovely.

    Mozart is one of the guys that puts this whole idea of structure with melody on the map. Structure, symmetry are very important in his compositions.【在Mozart的作品中,结构和对称非常重要】

[2020-02-08]

Lecture 07 Harmony: Chords and How to Build Them

介绍和声harmony和三和弦

  • Introduction to Harmony

    Harmony is one of the two things that really distinguishes the music of Western civilization — Western classical music, Western pop music,区分西方古典和流行的另一个, 是曲谱。

    Harmony:

    this concept of superimposing multiple pitches【多个音重叠,很多人同时弹一个调?】

  • The Formation and Changing of Chords
    chords:和弦

    a chord is just a simultaneous sounding of two or more pitches.【同时进行的两个或多个音】

    chord可以是和谐的,也可以是不和谐的。consonant or dissonant.

    This lesson is working with consonant chords【和谐的和弦】

    最基础的和弦是三和弦 triad。

    So what’s a triad?

    a set of three notes that can be stacked vertically in thirds.【from wiki】

    个音按度关系叠置。

    同时按住白键CEG。【有点像Vim里面同时按住多个键……】

    dominant and sub-dominant: 【这一节完全懵逼】

    The tonic is very important and this dominant — what we call the dominant. It’s not really the most important. It sort of leads into, pulls into — particularly important setting up the tonic. It’s the next important. Right below that is the sub-dominant. It often pulls into the dominant which then pulls into the tonic in that fashion.

    练习曲目: Johnny Cash’s Streets of Laredo

    why do we change chords?

    we change chords to make the harmony consonant or to make the harmony harmonious.

    聆听时的两个问题:

    • Is the harmony changing?

    • And if it is changing, is it changing at a regular or irregular rate?

      「By regular rate, every time a chord sounds it will be holding for exactly the same amount of time.」

    answer: changing in regular rate

    练习曲目:教授自弹 Jingle Bells

    harmony 出现在低音bass 部分

    一段DVD视频,引入了 mystery bass player Peter Salovey.

    How are they doing this? They’re hearing the chords. They’re hearing tonic, subdominant and dominant, and I think we can hear them too.

    【期待我哪天也能听出来tonic, subdominant and dominant……】

  • Harmonic Progressions

    the bass note is sort of the foundation and then you add these other things up above it, and they produce these chords and the chords are tonic and dominant and so on.

    【在低音的基础上,加入和弦,构成tonic,dominant】

    arpeggio: 琶音,一般是用竖琴弹奏琶音。【会弹竖琴的都是仙女!】

    taking the notes of the triad and just spinning them out in succession.

    just a chord with the notes played successively to create an arpeggio.

    一串和弦组成音从低到高或从高到低依次连续圆滑奏出,可视为分解和弦的一种.

    【有种大珠小珠落玉盘的感觉】

    Alberti bass:

    阿尔贝蒂低音, 指的是分解和弦的各个乐音按照特定顺序演奏,通常依“最低、最高、中等、最高”的顺序。

    It’s a good way of harmonizing something.

    boogie-woogie bass:

    a piano blues style from the early 20th century.

    【Youtube上有教学boogie-woogie的视频,看着感觉弹起来手很疼……】

    Beethoven在协奏曲中用到过。

    赏析 J.S.Bach prelude to the first book of his “ Well-Tempered Clavier”:

    a succession of chords played as arpeggios

    大约140年后,19世纪的法国作曲家 Charles Gounod 为巴赫的这段prelude配上了melody。

    【大提琴cello真的是超美,真的被The Swan惊艳到了,怪不得教授说 I’ve always said if I ever come back as a musical instrument I want to come back as a cello.】

    major triad and minor triad:

    练习:Franz Liszt’s Lugubrious Gondola, focus on the change from one triad to the next.

    低音部分,为琶音, just an arpeggio underneath。

    练习:the “Moonlight Sonata” of Beethoven【贝多芬的月光协奏曲】

    distinction between a major triad and a minor triad【这段完全没听懂,补】

  • Major and Minor Harmonies in Popular Music

    练习: U2‘s Love is Blindness

    ostinato harmony: from the Italian word ostinare, stubborn。【任何持续重复的因素,称为固定反复】

    when that pattern repeats

  • Modulation through Harmony

    modulation: the change from one tonality (tonic, or tonal center) to another.

    练习: Aaron Copland‘s Appalachian Spring

    Modulations are hard to hear. The best you can do is that oftentimes is say, “This is unsettled. Maybe it’s modulating,”

    练习:Beach Boys‘ these California airheads.

[2020-02-09]

Lecture 08 Bass Patterns: Blues and Rock

继续和声部分的理论知识,继续懵逼ing……

  • Review of Chord Formation

    三和弦 CEG,C 是 根音The root of the triad

    tonic (I)

    the dominant (V)

    sub-dominant(IV): right next to and below the dominant

    a I chord built on the first degree of the scale,

    a V chord built on the fifth degree of the scale,

    a IV chord built on the fourth degree,

    and a VI chord built on the sixth degree.

    When an orchestra plays or an ensemble plays and they’re just playing individual notes that all together form a chord.

    Question: Why do we change chords?

    Because the melody changes and not all harmonies are concordant with every note.

    这里,教授提到了pitch音高,感觉挺有意思。

    什么情况下,pitch dissonant (音不和谐)?

    pitches that are right next to each other — very close to each other — are dissonant.

    The closer these pitches are together, the more likely they are to be dissonant.

    所以弹CD会dissonant,弹CA就不会, because you allow a little separation between the two pitches, that makes them consonant, much better.

  • Chord Progressions and Harmonic Change

    Chord Progressions: 和弦进行?

    what is chord progression?

    A sequence of chords that sound good together, kind of make sense together.

    They seem to be going somewhere and there’s this sort of force of pull or gravity in music having to do with some chords wanting to go to other chords.

    如何能听到这些chord?如何能听到chord progression?如何能听到和声?

    to get a sense of harmony we’re going to listen to the bass.

    听低音部分,“下”到低音。

    听的时候,注意什么?

    figure out if the harmony is changing, and if it is changing whether it’s changing at a regular or irregular rate.

    和声是否变化,变化是规律的还是不规律的?

    Almost all classical music involves irregular rates of harmonic change.

    练习:Richard Wagner’s Ring Cycle 开头部分。

    Richard Wagner’s Ring Cycle: 尼伯龙根的指环,由瓦格纳作曲及编剧,整个于1848年开始创作,至1874年完成,历时共26年。

    尼伯龙根的指环是一个由四部歌剧组成的系列,分别为:

    • 莱茵的黄金

    • 女武神

    • 齐格弗里德

    • 诸神的黄昏

    练习:Dave Matthews Ban的作品片段

    练习:Mozart’s G Minor Symphony 【听起来应该是 Symphony no.40】

    赏析:【不懂系列】

    At the beginning, these chords are holding for four measures or a total of eight beats.

    Then as it goes on,Then we’re getting two changes per beat.It’s getting faster and faster and faster.

    The amount of time that each chord is holding is getting shorter and shorter and shorter as we drive into that cadence. cadence is simply the end of a musical phrase, particularly in this case the end of a chord progression, where we are at a point of arrival; the cadence brings us to a point of arrival. So that’s a piece of Mozart.

    练习:Beethoven‘s Symphony no.6, Pastoral Symphony【田园交响曲,田园牧歌】

    赏析:

    He’s doing the opposite of what Mozart did. He’s trying to relax us here by slowing down the rate of harmonic change here. That held for about thirty seconds, that tonic chord.

  • Popular and Classical Music Chord Progressions

    流行音乐中的和弦进行。

    What does pop music do for us that’s very helpful?

    • regularity and repetition

    • most of the chords in rock music in particular tend to be root-position chords, and for that reason they’re easier to hear.

    练习:Badly Drawn Boy 的歌 【regular,two chords, 没听出来】

    练习: Justin Timberlake 【regular,four chords, each chord was holding for two beats there in duple meter】

    What’s the difference between pop and classical music?

    pop music tends to have simpler harmonies, and that those harmonies tend to be more repetitious, that they tend to have harmonies that have chords in root position.

    We’ve got text in pop music that tells us what this music means. classical music, probably eighty-five percent of it, does not involve a text, and that’s a whole different ballgame because then you have to communicate meaning in a completely different sort of way.

    pop music are much shorter.

    Most classical music is written down.

    The structure of a popular piece is often more predictable in pattern and verses and bridges and chorus whereas with classical music you really can’t predict what part of the movement you’re at.

    classic music has the capacity for expansion.

  • Three-Chord Progressions

    练习:Beach Boys’s 歌片段,它是 Three-Chord Progressions, 和弦的顺序为 sub-dominant (IV), dominant (V), tonic (I)

    练习:Beethoven‘s Symphony no.6 最后一个乐章

    出场的乐器:单簧管Clarinet,法国号French horn

    using the same three-chord chord progressions in the Beach Boys.

  • Four-Chord Progressions

    练习:Gene Chandler’s Duke of Earl

    赏析:

    got four chords I, VI, IV, V, I, VI, IV, V operating here and they’re changing regularly.

    what happened in that middle section?

    it went on and on and on, longer, longer, longer, then in that middle section each chord was changing at the rate of two measures. So the whole piece, then, would be a piece involving irregular rate of change.

    练习:Mozart’s Symphony No. 5 in B-flat, 低音部分同Gene Chandler’s Duke of Earl

    练习:a passage of composer Gioachino Rossini‘s opera 【完全懵逼, 听懂的感觉一定很好玩吧?】

    赏析:

    the first thing we got to do is sort of lock on to the tonic.

    If you ever hear music rocking back and forth repeatedly between two chords, it’s probably tonic, dominant, tonic, dominant.

    It was I, VI, IV, V, I progression.

    what happened next was he then started to run that faster, twice as fast as it had been before, changing rate of harmonic pattern.

    The end of that was all just the tonic. He just sat there on the tonic forever. It’s a good example of sort of real time and psychological time in music. You knew it was time to start clapping as soon as that chord hit that.

[2020-02-10]

Lecture 09 Sonata-Allegro Form: Mozart and Beethoven

lecture 9~lecture 11, lecture13~lecture14 都是讲曲式的。

let’s pursue the issue of musical form.

  • Verse-Chorus Form in Popular Music

    Form is particularly important in all types of music.

    What’s the most common form that one encounters when dealing with pop songs?

    “verse and chorus” structure. 或教授的 “strophe and refrain” structure.

    Frederick Evans 举了NSYNC的“Bye Bye Bye” 说明流行音乐中的“verse and chorus” structure.

    分析:

    It’s half of the chorus or so when it starts and then there’s verse, chorus, verse, chorus and then what I call the bridge, which is like an emotional climax. And then the last one is a really powerful chorus where they just bring it home and then the music fades away.

    这里,教授听“Bye Bye Bye” 后,提到了Lament bass悲叹低音。

    Google了下什么是Lament bass。【看不懂,先码上】

    半音化四度(chromatic fourth,或 passus duriusculus)是一段横跨纯四度,并覆盖了这个四度中几乎所有半音程的旋律或旋律片段。

    在巴洛克和古典主义时代的歌剧中,半音化四度常见于低音声部,被用在悲伤的咏叹调中。这种创作技法被称作“悲叹的低音(lament bass)”

    在贝多芬的第9号交响曲第一乐章的倒数第二页的大提琴和低音提琴部分,可以找到半音化的四度。

    【byebyebye的bridge部分,感觉是竖琴弹出来的,Mark下。】

  • Introduction to Form in Classical Music

    音乐中体裁genre和曲式form的区别:

    genre 在音乐中,是simply musical type.

    symphony,string quartet,concerto,ballet, opera,classical New Orleans jazz,Blues 等都属于 genre。

    每一种体裁都是由乐章movement构成的,比如通常symphony有四个乐章,而concerto有三个乐章。

    每一个movement 由特定的form构成。each of the movements is informed by a particular form。

    以string quartet 弦乐四重奏为例:

    弦乐四重奏是一种音乐演奏形式,或是说一种音乐作品,由4把弦乐器负责,通常是2把小提琴,一把中提琴和一把大提琴。

    通常是四乐章的作品,首尾两乐章通常是快板,中间的乐章,在古典四重奏中是慢板和舞曲(如小步舞曲或谐谑曲)。【快板- 慢板-舞曲-快板, fast, slow, minuet, scherzo, fast,有些类似交响曲】

    为什么音乐中需要form?

    When we’re hearing a piece of music and all this stuff is coming at us we want to make sense of it by knowing approximately where we are. Am I still toward the beginning? Am I in the middle of this thing? Am I getting anywhere near the end of it? How should I respond at this particular point?

    古典音乐中的6种form:

    • ternary form 三段曲式
    • sonata allegro form 奏鸣曲式-快板
    • theme and variations 主题和变奏
    • rondo 回旋曲
    • fugue 赋格曲
    • ostinato 固定音型/固定低音

    其中, sonata-allegro is the hardest, the most complex, the most difficult of all of these forms.

    通常奏鸣曲-快板 出现在 sonata, concerto, string quartet, symphony 等体裁作品的第一乐章。

    slow movement, 则可能是 theme and variations 或者 rondo 或者 ternary form.

    小步舞曲或谐谑曲几乎总是三段曲式 ternary form。

    今天这堂课,我们学三段曲式和奏鸣曲-快板。

  • Ternary Form

    以Beethoven’s “Für Elise”为例,介绍 Ternary Form。

    三段式就是简单的ABA, statement, contrast, statement.

    simply the idea of presentation, diversion, re-presentation or statement, digression, restatement — anything like this.

    这里,介绍了一下 relative major and minor 的概念。【完全懵逼,后面过第二轮的时候,再好好理解下】

  • The Sonata-Allegro Form in Mozart’s “A Little Night Music”

    奏鸣曲式-快板,主要包含三个部分:

    • exposition 呈示部

      细分为第一主题(主部)、连接部bridge、第二主题(副部)、結束部。

    • development 发展部

      通常引申并进一步展开呈示部中的内容。

      the most polyphonic of any section in the piece. There’s a lot of counterpoint usually to be found in the development section.

    • recapitulation 再现部

    另有:

    结尾coda, 顾名思义,用来结束全曲。

    Codas generally are very static harmonically.

    Italian coda means tail, and these can be, like all tails, long or short. Mozart happened to like short codas. Beethoven liked longer codas.

    有的作曲家会在呈示部前面加上引子introduction。

    以Mozart’s Eine kleine Nachtmusik 为例:

    又称“第13号小夜曲”,作品编号K.525

    分四个乐章:

    1 第一乐章:快板
    2 第二乐章:浪漫曲(行板)
    3 第三乐章:小步舞曲和中间乐段(稍快板)
    4 第四乐章:回旋曲(快板)

    听第一乐章 奏鸣曲结构, a beautiful example of sonata-allegro form.

    【赏析部分完全懵逼了,listening,just listening。】

  • The Sonata-Allegro Form in Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony

    Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony 第五交响曲第一乐章。

    赏析:【呈示部和发展部】

    exposition:

    开头部分,没有引子no introduction.just starts off with his first motive there, a four-note motive.

    随后bridge部分,连接部

    You get a sense of moving from point A to point B or from first theme to second theme.

    结束coda部分,法国号加入

    随后,一个新的抒情主题加入,以小提琴开启。a new lyrical theme comes in

    音越来越高,Building up dynamics and pitch.

    在最后结束的时候,closing theme,用了 arpeggio 琶音。 是一个relative major,一个相对大三和弦。

    注意听旋律,the closing theme , just a different configuration of that short, short, short long motive. 然后我们进入development。

    development:

    start with four-note motive.

    then, modulates through different keys.

    modulating to a higher key there.

    then, begins to build up in terms of pitch, taking it up higher and higher and higher, bring full of tension, 贝多芬用了diminished triad来营造不安和紧张。

    中间教授弹了一段 Mozart的K.545第一乐章的开头部分,哈哈,大饼练的那首,我竟然听出来了,开心!

    then starts playing around with just two notes.

    And then breaks it down to just one note, once again reaching for the essence here. That sounds like high, low, high, low.

    and finally this sort of insistent motive just breaks down the door and then the recapitulation can begin.

[2020-02-11]

Lecture 10 Sonata-Allegro and Theme and Variations

继续奏鸣曲式,主题和变奏。

这次请来了一位artist 做客,Kensho Watanabe,看出来教授很喜欢这个勤奋的小哥哥。

  • Introduction

    回顾上节课提到的,流行音乐中的 verse and chorus。

    basically, you have the same material; you have the same musical material coming back again and again and again. With the chorus we actually have the same text coming back again and again and again. But with the verses although the music is the same, the text keeps changing each time. We get new strophes — or new verses — of text. So keep that in mind: verse, chorus, verse, chorus. Sometimes this can start with the chorus. Sometimes there’s a harmonic change in here that we would call the bridge, but essentially it’s the repetition of the same material over and over again in terms of the music — but in terms of the text, you get new text each time for the verses.

  • Parts of the Sonata-Allegro Form

    奏鸣曲式形成于18世纪,it’s something put together in some measure by Joseph Haydn and then passed on to his good friend, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.【由海顿传给他的忘年交Mozart】

    因为后面教授计划安排学生们去听一场音乐会。第一个作品就是Mozart的,第一乐章便是奏鸣曲式,所以就继续讲奏鸣曲式。

    【听音乐会之前,搞懂这些很有必要啊,不然真的是暴殄天物,而且大概率会听睡着了……】

    继续上一个lecture,这里介绍了奏鸣曲的4个function types。

    • thematic

      开头presenting a theme,比如 Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony 开头,four-note motive后,呈现一个主题

    • transitional

      从主题A 到主题 B,需要一个过渡。transition

    • developmental

      对应着发展部

    • cadential

      结束部。

      where the composer will just throw on a lot of heavy, simple harmonic motion to slow the music down psychologically.

  • Distinguishing Functional Types within the Sonata-Allegro

    嗯,现学现用。在奏鸣曲中,区分四个functional types。

    一段Mozart的pieces。

    【这段值得反复听。】

  • Theme and Variations

    主题和变奏。

    主题一直在,只是有些变化而已。【归来仍是少年,哈哈】

    we will get that theme, get that theme again with something changed. Then we will get that material again with something changed. And again with something changed……

    教授给了一个隐喻来解释主题和变奏这种曲式。

    类似铁路火车上的一系列棚车之类的东西,大小大致相同,但是每辆棚车的外观都会有些许不同。

    一个主题越简单,就越有可能应用于主题和变奏曲式,也许是因为它使得作曲家拥有更多自由发挥的空间去进行变奏。

    the simpler the theme, the more likely that theme is to become the basis of a set of theme and variations.Maybe it gives the composer more freedom to pursue variation.

    来听 Beethoven’s “God Save the King” 和 耶鲁自家的毕业生Charles Ives的作品Variations on America。

    随后,练习 Mozart的小星星变奏曲。

    赏析:

    in the first variation, Mozart is changing the theme. he’s sort of changing the theme by making the notes go quicker.

    in the second variation, he is changing the context.

    And so on.

    in the final variation, He’s just ornamenting a major triad so it’s a good — more cadential stuff — sort of very simple material at the end.

  • Examining Theme and Variations in Corelli’s La Folia

    邀请Kensho 一起合奏一曲。

    Kensho Watanabe,the concert master of the YSO. also one of the conductors of the Berkeley Chamber Orchestra, 三岁开始拉小提琴,同时对绝对音高非常敏感【has a very keen sense of absolute pitch】,人群中万里挑一。【One person in ten thousand has this particular gift, statistically.】

    一段小提琴和钢琴的合奏, lovely。

    教授和Kensho 合奏的是 Corelli 的 La Folia, Violin Sonata Op. 5 No. 12 in D Minor。

    Corelli:

    是巴洛克时期最有影响力的意大利小提琴家和作曲家,他几乎只为弦乐器创作。在器乐领域里,占有很重要的地位,音乐史上人称“现代小提琴技巧创建者”及“大协奏曲之父”。

    La Folia:

    西班牙语,福利亚舞曲,一般以基础和弦进行上以变奏曲形式演奏。

    共变奏13次。印象深刻的是教授让 Kensho 拉了一段用四指才能拉出来的和弦,说了一句:

    When he does it, you think it’s very simple, right, easy to do. It takes years to be able to do that.

    【真正台上一分钟,台下十年功,敬佩】

[2020-02-12]

Lecture 11 Form: Rondo, Sonata-Allegro and Theme and Variations

这节课主要的内容依然是曲式,回旋曲式, 主题和变奏。

先来了解下Johannes Brahms:

约翰内斯·勃拉姆斯:

浪漫主义中期德国作曲家。生于汉堡,逝于维也纳。

维也纳的音乐领袖人物,创作许多钢琴曲、室内乐、交响乐及合唱曲。勃拉姆斯本身是炫技钢琴家,首演过许多自己的作品。勃拉姆斯也和当时不少杰出的音乐家一起合作,包括钢琴演奏家克拉拉·舒曼以及小提琴演奏家约瑟夫·约阿希姆。勃拉姆斯的很多作品已成为现代音乐会的主要曲目之一。勃拉姆斯是不妥协的完美主义者,曾毁掉他的部分作品.也有一些未发表的作品。

3B之一。另外两个:Bach, Beethoven

He’s a very serious composer. He takes everything very seriously.

  • Introduction to the Concert Program

    concert 音乐会:Saturday 8:00 p.m at Battell Chapel

    教授讲了下有关音乐会的事情,顺带布置了下作业 write a review for the concert。

    concert 的三个作品名单:

    • Mozart‘s The Marriage of Figaro
    • Johannes Brahms’s variations on a theme by Joseph Haydn
    • Beethoven’s Pastoral Symphony
  • Analysis of Theme and Variations as a Form in Brahms’s Composition

    练习的曲目:variations on a theme by Joseph Haydn

    曲子遵循的曲式结构:A B C B, or Antecedent, Consequent, Extension, Consequent

    pedal point:

    This is a device that derives from organ technique where an organist would just put his foot or her foot on a particular key and just hold it for a long time.

    【从管风琴师那里延伸出来】

    hemiola:

    when you’re rolling in one of these and you suddenly shift to the other, back and forth.

    variation one: solo部分的乐器是双簧管 oboe

    variation five: so much syncopation. very fast

    variation seven:结构 A C A

    last variation: 【一如既往的懵逼】

    He’s got a theme and then he’s got what we call an ostinato in music.

    here he’s making this more complicated rhythmically by not only using hemiola and syncopation, but also threes against twos simultaneously. He’s throwing in some triplets in the melody up above.

    最后结束部分是一个coda,本来声音越来越低,感觉应该是结束了,结果一声响,重新来了一次主题,最后结束。

    if you don’t give the audience a coda, they’re expecting the next variation to begin. So you got to throw in that coda so that everybody knows, hey, that really was the end — no fooling.

  • Introduction to the Rondo

    回旋曲式:one big theme coming back again and again and again.

    练习: Jean-Joseph Mouret‘s Rondeau Suite De Symphonies No. 1 in D

    B部分用管风琴弹奏

  • Rondo in Vivaldi’s Spring Concerto and Mozart’s Horn Concerto

    • Vivaldi’s Spring Concerto

      回旋曲式

    • Mozart’s Horn Concerto

      Notice: each time the French horn plays the theme; then the orchestra repeats it。

  • Rondo Form in Sting’s Music and Conclusion

    展示了教授自己拍的一张照片,In France at the Chateau de Chambord,建筑风格类似回旋曲 A, B, A, C, A, B, A form。

    练习: The Police’s Every Breath You Take, 从wiki上摘录下The Police 乐队的介绍:

    1977年在英国伦敦成立的三人摇滚乐队,由主唱史汀Sting、鼓手科普兰和吉他手萨默斯组成,曾六次获格莱美奖。最热门的两首作品:《every breath you take》,《wrapped around your finger》

[2020-02-14]

Lecture 12 Guest Conductor: Saybrook Orchestra

这节课请来了Saybrook Orchestra的首席指挥家 Bradley Naylor, the principal violist Katie Dryden 和 the principal flutist Elana Kagan。

整节课是为了周六晚上的一场Saybrook Orchestra的音乐会做准备。

【挺好玩的一节课,哈哈,喜欢教授对自己的那段调侃。】

  • Introduction

    当我们去评价一场古典音乐会的时候,哪些该做哪些不该做?

    You do the following:

    • How well did the performance go?
    • How did the players do?

    You don’t do the following:

    • who the composer is.
    • when the piece was written.
    • the history of the piece, the historical context.
    • the meaning of the piece.
  • Writing a Concert Review

    Beethoven’s Pastoral Symphony:

    sort of an introduction, then an introduction to the birds of the forest in the second movement, a peasant romp in the third movement, a storm gathers in the fourth movement. That — we have an extra movement in this particular symphony because we’ve got Beethoven writing a bit of pictorial music here in the form of a fourth movement that’s a storm — and then a hymn of thanksgiving that plays out in, basically, a rondo-variation form there at the end.

    听贝多芬的作品时,需要知道什么呢?了解贝多芬本人。

    在音乐会之前,你可以将要演奏的所有曲目都听一遍。

    在听音乐会的间隙,可以记录下你的感受。

    在结束后,写下你的review。

    教授的建议是:the sooner you write your review after a performance the better.

  • Rehearsing and Leading an Orchestra

    Bradley Naylor 和教授的互动。

    Bradley Naylor 自小加入合唱团choirs,现在是一名conductor,很早开始学钢琴。

    这段教授和Bradley Naylor的一问一答还挺有意思的。有一段提到了Helmuth Rilling,德国指挥家,指挥三小时,不看曲谱,牛!

    Last year Helmuth Rilling, who is a famous German conductor, came and worked with some of the ensembles and did Mendelssohn’s Elijah, which is a huge romantic oratorio about two and a half hours long. The dress rehearsal — He came to the dress rehearsal, put his score down on the music stand, conducted for three hours, never opened it, and we were like, “Wow, this guy knows the score.”

    随后一群人玩了一个辨音的小游戏。

  • Viola Excerpts from the Concert Program

    一场小型的音乐会,演奏 The Marriage of Figaro。

  • Balancing Solos in the Performance and Conclusion

    the principal flutist Elana Kagan 表演了一段solo,Beethoven Pastoral Symphony second movement.【贝多芬田园交响乐第二乐章】

    one more question from professor Wright:

    Where should we sit?【去音乐会,我们坐哪里好呢?哈哈】

    Well, my favorite place to sit in concerts is somewhere where I can see that interaction between the different, I guess, gears in the machine, as you put it. So I would sit somewhere not directly behind the conductor, so somewhere where you can see the players ‘cause they’re the ones actually making the music. — Bradley Naylor

[2020-02-15]

Lecture 13 Fugue: Bach, Bizet and Bernstein

这节课说赋格,牛逼闪闪的Bach, the master of the fugue.

Every educated person should know what a fugue is. 【I want to be an educated person😂】

  • Introduction

    教授介绍了fugue在文学,绘画等多个艺术领域的应用。

    然后介绍了一本fugue方面的书,Douglas Hofstadter 的《 Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid》 中文译名:《哥德尔、埃舍尔、巴赫:集异璧之大成》。

    看了下,豆瓣评分9.5,该书获得普立兹奖。

    看一下教授对这本书的读后感:

    I can follow about the first twenty-five or thirty pages or so. Then when it gets to the math it really gets over my head, but what it is is an attempt to use the fugue as a way of bringing a common mode of understanding to the visual arts, to mathematics and to music.

  • The Structure of Fugues

    fugue的定义:

    A composition for two, three or four parts played or sung by voices or instruments which begins with a presentation of a subject in imitation in each part. The exposition continues with modulating passages of free counterpoint — the episodes — and further appearances of the subject, and ends with a strong affirmation of the tonic key.

    简单点的:

    they start out with one voice leading forward and then another voice imitates that voice exactly.

    如果 the following voice 从头到尾都跟 leading voice 一个调调的话,就不叫赋格,叫Canon, one voice imitating the other exactly from beginning to end.

    Fugue最少有两种voices,最多可有32种voices。

    最知名的赋格集就是Bach的《The Well-Tempered Clavier》,Clavier 意为 keyboard,the well-tuned keyboard, 调好的键盘乐器? 中文翻译成了《十二平均律》。

    《The Well-Tempered Clavier》共有两本书,一本写于1722年,另一本完成于1742年,每一本中,都有24个 preludes 和 fugues 。

    what’s a prelude?

    It’s just a warm-up piece, to just sort of get relaxed. You get to see your fingers, get a feel of the keyboard. a prelude, a pre play, a warm-up, and then we go on to the meat of the issue, which is the fugue.

    【有点类似运动前的热身,虽然懵逼,但不得不说,prelude真好听啊】

    fugue的结构:

    呈示部 exposition:

    We have a leader and then a follower. And the follower duplicates the main idea, which we’re going to call th e subject, for a period of time, but then it kind of breaks off. So voices will come in and duplicate a certain amount of material and then break off and go their own way.

    After all of the voices are in, we’re at the end of what we call the exposition of the fugue.

    【注意区分奏鸣曲中的呈示部, 奏鸣曲中是 first theme and then second theme and closing theme, 而赋格则是只有一个主题,所有的voice都在各自的range 里 展示这个theme】

    【从进程角度看,follower 是从 leader fork出来的,然后中断,开始了自己的旅途,能这么理解吗?】

    After that we go to what’s called the “episode” of a fugue.【呈示部 结束后,便是episode 】

    Usually it modulates key and the vehicle through composers frequently modulate is melodic sequence, either up or down. You can kind of move around by using sequence. So it tends to be contrapuntal because it’s using little motives from the theme. It modulates, moves around a lot, goes to different keys, sounds a bit unsettled. these episodes in a fugue are sort of mini development sections.

    【类似奏鸣曲中的发展部】

    Then the subject will come back in a new key because we’ve modulated in the episode, subject in just one voice, new key, then another episode in which there’s modulation, more counterpoint, more movement; another statement of the subject in a new key; another episode; another statement of the subject, and on it goes until we have the sense, “oh, this is a very solid moment; yes, this fugue is ending.” And maybe they’ll throw upon one or — throw one or two chords on the end but that’s it.

    【最后主题以发展部中modulated key返回,以一个或多个和弦结束】

    fugue 和 Canon都属于imitative polyphonic texture, 模仿的复调。

    fugue 属于织体里面不那么严格的模仿的复调, 而卡农Canon 则是标准的模仿的复调,以一个主要声部开始,随后它被一个或更多的其他声部复制,跟随的声部完全准确地重复主要声部的主题。

  • Fugue Analysis in J. S. Bach’s Compositions

    巴赫作品中的赋格分析。

    作品:Bach fugue No.2 in C minor Well-Tempered Clavier Book I。

    两种风格演绎 这段 fugue。Jazz 爵士 and Baroque 巴洛克风格

    Jazz 版本里面,低音部分的乐器是低音提琴。

  • Fugue Structures in Excerpts of Bizet and Bernstein

    通常情况下,fugue是单独的,独立的作品。但有时,赋格也可以加入到其他的曲式中,这种手法称之为fugato.

    fugato:

    在另一种曲式中加入fugue,称之为fugato, a fugato is a fugue placed inside another form.

    比如在奏鸣曲式的发展部中,加入一段fugue。

    这里,选取了Georges Bizet 和 Bernstein 的赋格片段。

    Georges Bizet :

    乔治·比才,法国作曲家。著名的作品包括歌剧《卡门》、戏剧配乐《阿莱城的姑娘》等。

    练习的曲子是Georges Bizet 的 Symphony in C Major 中的一部分。

    教授对这段曲子的评价:There’s a lovely romantic string sound, sort of break-your-heart string sound.

    赏析:

    We’ve got a four-voice fugue that’s going to start here.

    辨别出四个voice the bass, tenor, soprano, alto 低音,次中音,高音,中音 的出场顺序。

    ˙正确的顺序:bass, alto,tenor,soprano 【低音,中音,次中音,高音】

    Leonard Bernstein:

    伦纳德·伯恩斯坦,犹太裔美国作曲家、指挥家、作家、音乐教育家、钢琴家。

    1989年12月23日和12月25日是他永远被值得纪念的两天,伯恩斯坦在钢琴家尤斯图斯·弗朗茨的邀请下到柏林指挥贝多芬第九交响曲,地点分别是柏林爱乐厅和柏林音乐厅,由Unitel摄影。当时正值柏林墙倒下,伯恩斯坦将交响曲中席勒的《欢乐颂》改为《自由颂》。伯恩斯坦对此说道:“我肯定,贝多芬会同意咱们这么做的”。超过20个国家,一亿人通过电视转播收看了这场音乐会。

    特意找了下,Youtube上有视频,不是高清,但不影响观看,贴上 The Berlin Celebration Concert - Beethoven, Symphony No 9 Bernstein 1989. Enjoy the Berlin Freedom concert.

    【陡然觉得,生在这样的时代,真是莫大的幸福,那么多前人优质的作品,都触手可及,满满的感恩。】

    赏析Leonard Bernstein’s Prelude, Fugue, and Jazz Riff 的fugue部分:【除了萨克斯,其他继续懵逼……】

    演奏乐器:Saxophones 萨克斯

    We have a moment of melodic inversion.【转位】

    what we’re about to hear next is something of a surprise because we get a second fugue subject. And it’s a different fugue subject; it is not syncopated. It’s rather lyrical .

    So what we have here is called a double-fugue. He’s got one exposition with one fugue subject. Now he’s going to give us a completely different exposition with yet a second fugue subject, and then number one comes back.

    You can design a fugue subject, not only that it could go upside down, but in which the intervals instead of coming in long succession could be piled right on top of one another.

    The intervals back up on each other because they have been arranged to be consonant at key points and that’s called stretto, Italian word stretto, kind of tight — tight entries here. So here is fancy little bit of counterpoint by Leonard Bernstein that once again goes by very quickly.

    Now he’s going to bring back the two subjects together.

    So it’s a pretty nifty little fugue there by Leonard Bernstein with lots of intricate counterpoint involved in it.

    随后,是一段 Bach的fugue,3分22秒,用管风琴organ弹奏。

    欣赏这段fugue的时候,教授把灯关了,要求学生们闭上双眼,放松去听,听到fugue里面的subject时,举手示意。【我很怀疑当时底下有没有学生睡着了,不过这么好听的管风琴,应该没人舍得睡……】

    【呃,如果我没有听错,这里教授放的应该是Fugue in G Minor, BWV 578】

    听fugue时,只要做一件事:

    Differentiating between a passage in which you’ve got a statement of the subject and an episode where there ain’t no statement of the subject. 【找到subject和episode】

    赏析:

    we’ve gone soprano, alto, tenor and now bass.

    It’s in one of those inner voices.

    It’s a little bit disguised but it’s in there.

    Yep, way down in the bass.

    A nice, long sequence here.

    so episode.

    Yep, all the way up on top in the soprano.

    Another episode, descending sequence this time.

    Rising sequences here, falling sequences in the bass.

    最后课堂的结尾,播放了由 Glenn Gould 格连·古尔德弹奏的巴赫的fugue,边唱边教你如何写fugue:P。

[2020-02-16]

Lecture 14 Ostinato Form in the Music of Purcell, Pachelbel, Elton John and Vitamin C

最后一个曲式:ostinato form, 固定音型/固定反复/固定低音

  • Review of Musical Forms

    教授提了下下周二的考试。【嗯,我考肯定挂科……】

    然后提了下,下周六的音乐会 The Jonathan Edwards Orchestra 。

    The Jonathan Edwards Orchestra is going to be performing at Battell and they’ll be doing the Beethoven Eighth Symphony and when you go there you’re going to have four movements in the Beethoven Eighth Symphony. 【贝八交响曲】

  • Multiple Themes within Beethoven’s Third Symphony

    Beethoven’s Third Symphony, 又称 Eroica Symphony,英雄交响曲。这里的英雄原型指的是拿破仑Napoleon。后面贝多芬知道拿破仑加冕成皇帝后,很生气,知道他将会和其他人一样,成为一名独裁者,他愤怒地把这个谱子撕破了。【哈哈,贝多芬挺可爱。】

    降E大调第三交响曲“英雄”:

    该作品是交响曲历史上的里程碑式作品,规模宏大、充沛有力、情感丰富、结合了诗意和力量,极具独创性,在当时不受观众接受和欢迎;但却是贝多芬最为钟爱的作品之一。

    贝多芬早在1789年时就有写作一部英雄气概交响曲的想法,但并没有落到笔头。贝多芬于1801年觉察到自己的耳聋,并在翌年夏搬至海利根斯塔特以躲避维也纳的气候。在那里贝多芬写下了著名的海利根斯塔特遗书。他甚至想自杀,但“我的艺术把我拉回来”。在这一阶段,贝多芬作出了该交响曲,也表达了其内心的奋斗历程。这首交响曲从1803年5月正式开始创作,作品完成是在1804年的年初。

    练习Beethoven’s Third Symphony finale 终曲中的主题和变奏,赋格。

    赏析:

    Beethoven’s got a fugato in there, he’s got sections that sound like transition out of sonata-allegro form, and he’s working with two themes.

    在fourth variation中,贝多芬加入了fugue,使用了 fugato,其中赋格部分,voice的出场顺序是soprano, alto, tenor and then bass.

  • The Ostinato Form in Purcell’s Opera

    Ostinato曲式:

    It’s something that happens again and again and again, just sort of obsessive-compulsive disorder applied to music.

    最典型的例子就是 Maurice Ravel‘s Bolero。

    It’s ostinato in every way in the sense that the melody keeps repeating over and over again for fourteen minutes. 【melody一直不断重复,可是听的时候一点儿都不觉得枯燥,反而很舒服😌】

    插播一段Maurice Ravel 的介绍:

    约瑟夫-莫里斯·拉威尔,法国作曲家和钢琴家。是法国乐坛中与克劳德·德彪西齐名的印象乐派作曲家。

    他的音乐以纤细、丰富的情感和尖锐著称,同时也被认为是二十世纪的主要作曲家之一。

    早年的拉威尔和德彪西有着密切的交往,德彪西的印象派作曲手法很自然就深入到拉威尔初期的创作中。到了后期,特别是第一次世界大战以后,拉威尔更倾向于明确的音乐语言,与那种晦暗的乐句划清界限。

    拉威尔自评:“严格的说,我不是一个‘现代作曲家’,因为我的音乐远不是一场‘革命’,我只是一场‘进化’。虽然我对音乐中的新思潮一向是虚怀若谷、乐于接受的,但我从未企图屏弃已为人们公认的和声作曲规则。相反,我经常广泛地从一些大师身上吸取灵感(我从未中止对莫扎特的研究),我的音乐大部分建立在过去的传统上,并且是它的一个自然的结果。我不是一个擅长写那种过激的和声与乱七八糟的对位的‘现代作曲家’,因为我从来不是任何一种风格的奴隶,我也从未与任何特定的乐派结盟。”

    【才知道 Maurice Ravel 原来同 Debussy一样,同属印象派啊,怪不得曲子听着那么舒服。】

    every aspect of melody, rhythm and harmony is controlled by this ostinato procedure.

    从巴洛克时期开始 Ostinato曲式 的学习。

    ostinato 总是出现在低音部分。when you get an ostinato it’s applied to the bass.

    练习:巴赫的 passacaglia C Minor, BWV 582,这里选取了管风琴了片段。

    随后的练习取自 Henry Purcell的歌剧 Dido and Aeneas 狄朵与埃涅阿斯。

    Henry Purcell:

    亨利·珀塞尔, 巴洛克时期的英格兰作曲家,吸收法国与意大利音乐的特点,创作出独特的英国巴洛克音乐风格。

    他被认为是英国最伟大的作曲家之一,独霸乐坛两百年。【江山代有才人出,各领风骚数百年……】

    Dido and Aeneas:

    狄朵与埃涅阿斯:

    三幕歌剧。

    该歌剧取材于维吉尔的史诗“埃涅阿斯纪”,演绎了北非女王狄朵和特洛伊英雄埃涅阿斯的爱情悲剧。

    练习部分为Dido’s Lament, 是女主狄朵以为自己被埃涅阿斯抛弃而深感悲痛。

    狄朵的唱段《当我躺在尘土之下时》(When I am laid in earth),是音乐历史上最著名的“哀歌” 之一。

    it’s built on an ostinato bass line. it just keeps recycling over and over and over again. 【低音部分反复】

  • The Pachelbel Canon and Conclusion

    引入 Elton John‘s Sorry Seems To Be The Hardest Word. 【好悲的曲子】

    教授说, Elton John has stolen Pachelbel bass line。在《Sorry Seems To Be The Hardest Word》的副歌部分,Elton John 使用了Pachelbel bass line 帕赫贝尔卡农低音线。

    What’s the most famous ostinato bass of all time?

    最出名的固定低音是 The Pachelbel bass.

    There’s an irony with the “Pachelbel Canon” and that is that you never hear the canon in the “Pachelbel Canon.”

    Johann Pachelbel:

    约翰·帕赫贝尔,德国著名巴洛克时期作曲家、管风琴家,先后曾在许多地方担任过管风琴师的职位。巴赫的哥哥就曾在他门下学习。

    《D大调卡农》是约翰·帕赫贝尔最著名的曲子之一。以三部小提琴间隔两小节演奏一首完全相同的曲调,工整精致,“卡农”并非曲名,而是一种曲式,字面上意思是“轮唱”,简单的讲,就是有数个声部的旋律依次出现,给人绵延不断的感觉。

    练习:Pachelbel Canon in D major

    赏析:

    he’s got these three canonic lines — the three staves up above — all in the same register, and when people record this they always do it with the same instrument, usually just with a violin, so we have the violins up above, three violins all playing in the same register. You can’t pick out the canon. It just sounds like this unfolding jumble. It’s a very beautiful jumble but it’s indistinctive in that sense. 【一片混沌,无法分辨, You can’t pick out the canon,所以人们说在Pachelbel Canon中,听不到Canon】

    最后散场播放 Vitamin C 的Graduation,这首歌使用了帕赫贝尔卡农低音线。