People profess enthusiasm for personal growth and development and spend billions of dollars on self-help books, taps and seminars, yet they act as if their minds have no need of improvement.
每个人或多或少都会有“mine is better”的想法。
It is natural enough to like our own possessions better than other people’s.
many people realize that we all see ourselves in a special way, different from everything that is not ourselves, and that whatever we associate with ourselves becomes part of us in our minds.
some people think that “mine is better” is not an attitude that everyone has about his or her things, but a special higher truth about their particular situation. 心理学家将这一类人分为两种：个人中心主义者egocentric，种族中心主义者ethnocentric people。
Egocentric means：centered or focuses on oneself and interested only in one’s own interests, needs and views.
The perspective of egothink is very limited, egocentric people have difficulty seeing issues from a variety of viewpoints.
Ethnocentric means excessively centered or focused on one’s group.
What distinguishes ethnocentric individuals from those who feel a normal sense of identification with their group is that ethnocentric people believe that their group is not merely different from other groups but foundamentally and completely superior to them and that the motivations and intentions of other groups are suspect.
It fills their need for an out-group to blame for real and imagined problems in society.
And they get a large target at which they can point their anger and fear and inadequacy and frustration.
上面提到的两种类型是“mine is better”的极端形式，但是每个人都会或多或少带着两者的影子，特别是前者egocentric。
“Mine is better” thinking is the most basic problem for critical thinkers because, left unchecked, it can distort perception and corrupt judgement. The more mired we are in subjectivity, the less effective will be our critical thinking.
这里有一点需要弄清楚，并不是一味的否认“mine is better”，而是说“mine is better”的这种思维模式会让人对所有其他的想法弃之不理，想当然的以为自己的就是最好的。但也有可能，TA的这个想法确实是最好的。
- keep in mind that, like other people, we too are prone to it and that its influence will be strongest when the subject is one we really care about.
- be alert for signals of its presence, those signals can be found both in feelings and thoughts:
- in feelings: very pleasant， favorable sensations; the desire to embrace a statement or argument immediately, without appraising it further. or very unpleasant, negative sensations, the desire to attack and denounce a statement or argument without delay.
- in thoughts: ideas such as “I’m glad that experts are taking such a position - I’v thought it all along and no use of wasting time analyzing this evidence – it must be conclusive”, or ideas such as “this view is outrageous because it challenges what i have always thought – I refuse to consider it”.
Errors of perspective are like seriously distorted lenses, except instead of being perched on our noses, they inhabit our minds.
They shape the attitudes and habits you bring to the evaluation of issues and create expectations that bias your thinking. Moreover, you may not even be aware of their existence unless you evaluate your patterns of thought.
those errors that create obstacles to critical thinking before we address any issue，具体都有哪些呢？这一章主要提到了7个：
- poverty of aspect
- unwarranted assumptions
- the either/or outlook
- mindless conformity
- bias for or against change
Karl Duncker, coined the term poverty of aspect to refer to the limitation that comes from taking a narrow rather than a broad view on problems and issues.
这里作者提到上个世纪中，学术在历史进程中的倍增和每个学术领域的知识爆炸，是引起poverty of aspect的不可忽视的原因。
the multiplication of the academic disciplines over the course of history and the explosion of knowledge that has taken place in every discipline, especially during the previous century.
利：This specialization deepened understanding and multiplied scholarly insights.
弊：It cut off many scholars from the insights of disciplines other than their own and aggravated the condition called poverty of aspect . This poverty creates significant problems in the analysis of complex issues.
recoginze the limitations of your experience and discipline your mind to broaden your outlook beyond the familiar, to examine all relevant points of view, and to understand before judging.
「可以这样理解，学术或者某个领域的广度和深度，深度视角虽然让人对某个专属领域理解更深，但是会带来poverty of aspect, 或者说tunnel vision，看不到问题的全貌。」
Assumptions are ideas that are merely taken for granted rather than produced by conscious thought.
whenever you take too much for granted – that is, more than is justified by your experience or the particular circumstance.
- people’s senses are always trustworthy.[beliefs and desires can distort perception, causing people to see and hear selectively or inaccurately]
- If an idea is widely reported, it must be true.
- having reasons proves that we have reasoned logically.
- familiar ideas are more valid than unfamiliar ones.
- If one event follows another in time, it must have been caused by the other.
- Every event or phenomenon has a single cause.
- the majority view is the correct view.
- the way things are is the only way they should be.
- change is always for the better.
- Appearances are trustworthy.[外在是会误导人的]
- If an idea is in our mind it is our own idea and deserves to be defended.[ideas in our minds, in a large number, are uncritically absorbed from other people. 大部分的我们不过是他人思想的载体，传声器]
- The stronger our conviction about an idea, the more valid the idea.
- if we find an error in someone’s argument, we have disproved the argument.[an argument can contain minor flaws yet be sound]
Remember that assumptions are usually implied rather than expressed directly, much like the hidden premises in arguments. to identify them, develop the habit of reading(and listening) between the lines for ideas that are unexpressed but nevertheless clearly implied. once you have identified an assumption, evaluate it and decide whether it is warranted.
这里与第八章的argument呼应了，be alert to hidden premises.
either/or outlook 是什么？
the either/or outlook is the expectation that the only reasonable view of any issue is either total affirmation or total rejection.
what’s the problem with it?
it rejects the very real possibility that the most reasonable view may be both/and – in other words, a less extreme view.
whenever you are examining an issue and find yourself considering only two alternatives, ask yourself whether additional alternatives exist and, if they do, give them a fair hearing.
conformity is behaving as others do.[别人做什么，你便做什么。]
One kind of conformity like looking both ways before crossing the street, make life easier and safer. The imitation of good role models is also a positive conformity. this kind of conformity helps us develop our capacities and become better individuals.
但是，mindless conformity, 盲目的遵守，是毫无依据，甚至有时候是不合理的。
it consists of following others’ example because we are too lazy or fearful to think for ourselves.
The secret to avoiding mindless conformity is to resist whatever pleading, teasing, and prodding others exert to make you think and speak and act as they do. Instead of succumbing, ask yourself what is reasonable and right and follow that path, regardless of whether that places you in the majority or the minority.
Absolutism is the belief that there must be rules but no exceptions.
Absolutists tend to be impatient in their thinking and therefore susceptible to oversimplification and hasty conclusions. and once a rule is established, absolutists refuse to allow exceptions.
when you begin to examine any issue, even one that you have thought about before, commit yourself to accepting the truth as you find it rather than demanding that it be neat and simple.
relativism is the polar opposite of absolutism. the relativist believes that the existence of exceptions proves there can be no rules.
The belief that truth is created rather than discovered.
Relativism also holds that morality is subjective rather than objective – in other words, that moral rules are binding only on those who accept them.
remind yourself from time to time that some ideas, and some standards of conduct, are better than others and that the challenge of critical thinking is to discover the best ones.
the only reasonable attitude toward for or against change is “it depends on what the change is”.
Now bias for change is more common than it used to be ,no doubt because we live in an age of unprecedented change, especially in technology, because many changes are beneficial, we may make the mistake of believing that all are.
but bias against change is still more prevalent than bias for change.【相比拥抱变化，拒绝变化更为普遍】
the force of familiarity
Most of us prefer ideas that we know and feel comfort with.
our “mine is better” perspective
New ideas challenges our sense of security, so we tend to resist them.
monitor your reaction to new ideas.
don’t be surprised if you strongly favor or oppose an idea the first time you encounter it. However, refuse to endorse your first impression uncritically. Instead, suspend judgment until you have examined the idea carefully. If the idea proved insightful and well substantiated, accept it regardless of its oldness or newness, if it is flawed, reject it.
chapter 9, examined errors of perspective, flawed outlooks that create significant obstacles to critical thinking even before we address any issue.
this chapter, examine the kinds of errors that occur in the process of addressing specific issues.
- seeking only evidence that confirms your bias[第一阶段investigation]
- when evidence is presented to you that challenges your bias and you choose an interpretation that favors your bias, even when other interpretations are more reasonable.[第二阶段interpretation]
The worst aspect of bias is that if often occurs innocently, without one’s awareness. And not just among students, even professional scholars can commit this error.
begin your investigation by seeking out individuals whose views oppose your bias and then go on to those that support it. Also, choose the most reasonable interpreatation, regardless of whether it flatters your bias.
double standard consists of using one standard of judgement for our ideas and ideas compatible with our own and an entirely different – much more demanding – standard for ideas that disagree with ours.
decide in advance what judgement criteria you will use and apply those criteria consistently, even if the data in question do not support your view.
Hasty conclusion is a premature judgment — that is, a judgment made without sufficient evidence.
Many people are in the habit of accepting the first judgment that comes to mind, never bothering to inquire
Whether a different judgment might be as reasonable or perhaps even more so.【思考第一反应的合理性】
identify all possible conclusions before you select any one. Then decide whether you have sufficient evidence to support any of those conclusions and, if so, which conclusion that is.
Remember that there is no shame in postponing judgment until you obtain additional evidence.
generalizing is the mental activity by which we draw broad conclusions from particular experiences.
generalizing is not only natural but indispensable to learning. 【我们不可能看到一个事物的所有实例，比如并不需要看到这世上所有的狗才能了解狗，在有限的时空中，认识可见的实例即可，当样本量开始增大时，随时准备好修正原始的认知。】
It is easy to overgeneralize – that is, to ascribe to all the members of a group what fits only some members.
a stereotype is an overgeneralization that is especially resistant to change.【坚持以偏概全不动摇】
the most common types of stereotypes are ethnic and religious. 【最常见的模式化观念是种族和宗教】
both overgeneralizations and stereotypes hinder critical thinking because they prevent us from seeing the differences among people within groups.
resist the urge to force individual people, places, or things into rigid categories. In forming generalizations, keep in mind that the more limited your experience, the more modest you should make your assertion.
simplification is not only useful but essential, particularly at a time like the present, when knowledge is expanding so rapidly.【大道至简】
oversimplification, on the other hand, goes beyond making complex ideas easier to grasp; it twists and distorts the ideas. Instead of informing people, oversimplification misleads them.【过于简单以至于都会误导他人】
Oversimplification often occurs in matters about which people have strong feelings.
Be alert for oversimplification in what you read and hear, and avoid it in your own thinking and expression.
这个出自拉丁术语的缩写，意思是” after this, therefore beacuse of this.”,直白点就是说，B发生在A之后，那么A就是B发生的原因。这个在chapter 3的understand cause and effect中提到过。事情发生的先后跟因果可能没有任何关系。
The error in this thinking is the failure to realize that mere order and closeness in time does not prove a cause-and-effect relationship.
you should be careful to avoid the post hoc error ——withhold judgment until you have evaluated all possible explanations, including coincidence.
they originate in the mind, more or less consciously.
- arguing in a circle
- meaningless statement
- mistaken authority
- false analogy
- irrational appeal【不合理的诉求】
The principle of contradiction is one of the fundamental principles of logic.
no statement can be both true and false at the same time in the same way.
the best way to see its correctness is to try to construct a statement that disproves it.
argument：O. J. Simpson 谋杀了Nicole Brown Simpson
这里，O. J. Simpson要么谋杀了Nicole Brown Simpson ，要么就没有谋杀，二选一，但是如果O. J. Simpson雇佣别人去谋杀了Nicole Brown Simpson呢？这样的话，O. J. Simpson到底是不是谋杀了Nicole Brown Simpson？ 这时候，你就不可以说，他既谋杀了Nicole Brown Simpson又没有谋杀Nicole Brown Simpson。他不是真正的实施者，算是没有谋杀？但是他是推动者，要为Nicole Brown Simpson的死负责，算是谋杀？更合理的表达可以是：he would have murdered her in the sense of being responsible for the act but not in the sense of having carried it out.
monitor what you say and write.
The moment you detect any inconsistency, examine it carefully. Decide whether it is explainable or whether it constitutes a contradiction. If it proves to be a contradiction, reexamine the issue and take a view that is both consistent and reasonable.
A person arguing in a circle attempts to prove a statement by repeating it in a different form.
To detect circularity in your writing or speaking, it is not enough to read and nod in agreement with yourself. You must check to be sure the evidence you offer in support of your view is not merely a restatement of the view in different words.
meaningless statement更像是毫无意义的废话，严肃的学术论文中，自然应该避免，但是一般的文学作品中，meaningless statement还是很多的。
in the course of presenting ideas, people often find it useful or necessary to present the reasons that underlie their thoughts and actions. A meaningless explanation is one in which the reasons make no sense.
to detect meaningless statements in your writing, look at what you have said as critically as you look at what other people say. Ask, Am I really making sense?
own authority to someone who does not possess it.
to avoid the error of mistaken authority, check to be sure that all the sources you cite as authorities possess expertise in the particular subject you are writing about.
an analogy is an attempt to explain something relatively unfamiliar by referring to something different but more familiar, saying in effect, “this is like that.”
An analogy is acceptable as long as the similarities claimed are real. 【不过，好的类比需要对两种事物都有很好的理解，正确地get到两者的相似处，还挺难的，可遇不可求】
比如典型的一个错误类比：Animals, which move, have limbs and muscles, the earth has no limbs and muscles, hence it doesn’t move.
Always test your analogies to be sure that the similarities they claim are real and reasonable and that no important dissimilariteies exist.
An irrational appeal encourages people to accept ideas for some reason rather than reasonableness.
Such an appeal says, in effect, “there’s no need to think critically about this idea or compare it with alternative ideas – just accept it.”
irrational appeal to emotion
irrational appeal to emotion uses feelings as a substitute for thought。
A rational appeal to emotion not only stimulates feelings but also demonstrates their appropriateness to the ideas being presented.
irrational appeal to tradition
an irrational appeal to tradition urges maintaining the tradition merely because we’ve always done so. [因为传统一直如此，所以我们也应该这样。如果真的是这样，人类大概是不会进步了，因为要保持传统啊，哪一次革命性的进步不是对传统的革新呢？]
An appeal to trandition must not only tell people how old and revered the tradition is but also how that it still deserves our endorsement.
irrational appeal to moderation
An irrational appeal to moderation is offered on the erroneous presumption that moderation is always preferable.
includes an explanation of why the more moderate idea or action is preferable to less moderate alternatives.
irrational appeal to authority
An irrational appeal to authority says, “Here is what one or more authorities say — accept it unquestonly”。对于权威所说的，没有任何质疑，全盘接受，基于part1的洗脑，这种诉求明显不能接受。
Says “Here is what one or more authorities say,” and proceeds to show why that view should be accepted.
irrational appeal to common belief
An irrational appeal to common belief says, “Believe this because most people believe it”.
says “Moset people believe this”, and goes on to show the reasonableness of the belief.
irrational appeal to tolerance
An irrational appeal to tolerance says, “Because tolerance is good in general, it is the right response to every situation, including this one.”
explans why tolerance is appropriate in the particular situation in question.
the best way to distinguish between rational and irrational appeals is to ask whether the appeal is accompanied by an explanation of why you should accept it.
so far, 7 errors of perspective, 6 errors of procedure, 6 errors of expression .
errors of reaction occur after we have expressed our ideas and others have criticizes or changenged them.
whatever does not flatter us or our point of view reflects our urge to save face and preserve our self-image.
each of us has a self-image, generally a favorable one.
some people manage to resist the tempation to save face, but most of us fall victim to it from time to time.
For still others, it is neither the particular aspect of the image nor the role involved that triggers the face-saving reaction. it is the people who are observing.
- automatic rejection
- changing the subject
- shifting the burden of proof
- Straw man [稻草人]
- attacking the critic
automatic rejection is to reject criticism without giving it a fair hearing.
合理的做法应该是：evaluate the challenges and make an honest determination of its worth.
A good way to lessen that temptation is to put some emotional distance between your ideas and your ego. Think of them as possessions that you can keep or discard rather than as extensions of yourself. This will make your less defensive about them.
Changing the subject consists of abruptly turning a discussion in a different direction.
changing the subject is an error only when the original issue is appropriate and the shift is used deceptively.
Intentionally changing the subject frustrates the purpose of discussion. To avoid this error, face difficult questions head-on.
if you know the answer, state it. if the issue is too complex to permit a certain answer, state what you believe to be probable and explain your reasoning. if you lack sufficient knowledge to speak of probabilities, say so. No reasonable person will think less of you for candidly admitting ignorance.
The errors of shifting the burden of proof consists of demanding that others disprove our assertions.
you wll be less likely to shift the burden of proof if you learn to expect your ideas to be questioned and criticized and prepare to support them before you express them.
put false words in someone else’s mouth and then expose their falsity, conveniently forgetting that the other person never said them.
be scrupulously accurate in quoting or paraphrasing other people’s words.
Attracking the critic is the attempt to discredit an idea or argument by disparaging the person who expressed it.
understand that ideas and people are not synonymous. it is unreasonable to substitute speculations or judgments about people themselves for judgments of their ideas.
Part 2 中提到的所有error及对应的处理方法：
The most fundamental critical thinking error is “Mine is better” thinking. in which we assume that our ideas must be superior to other people’s simple because they are our ideas. In reality, of course, our ideas are as likely to be mistaken as anyone else’s. To overcome “mine is better” thinking, we must be as critical of our own ideas as we are of other people’s.
|The error||how to recognize it and deal with it|
|Poverty of aspect||limiting one’s perspective on issues; having tunnel vision. poverty of aspect sometimes is attributable to intellectual sloth; other times it is a by-product of specialized education and training. to avoid poverty of aspect when evaluation issue, look beyond the familiar, examine all relevant points of view, and understand before judging.|
|Unwarranted assumptions||assumptions are ideas that are taken for granted rather than consciously reasoned out. When what is taken for granted is unjustified by one’s experience or by the situation, the assumption is unwarranted. Because assumptions seldom are expressed directly, the only way to identify them is to “read between the lines” for what is unstated but clearly implied.|
|Either/or outlook||The expectation that the only reasonable view of any issue will be total affirmation or total rejection. This error rules out the possibility that the most reasonable view might lie between the extremes. To avoid this error, consider all possible alternatives|
|Mindless conformity||Adopting others’ views unthinkingly because we are too lazy or fearful to form our own. To overcome this error, develop the habit of resisting the internal and external pressures and make up your own mind.|
|Absolutism||the belief that rules do not admit of exceptions. This belief causes us to demand that the truth be neat and simple, When in reality it is often messy and complex. To avoid this error, accept the truth as you find it rather than requiring that it fit your preconceptions.|
|Relativism||The belief that no view is better than any other, that any idea you choose to embrace is automatically correct. To avoid relativism, remind yourself that some ideas and some standards of conduct, are better than others and that the challenge of critical thinking is to discover the best ones.|
|Bias for or against change||Bias for change assumes that change is always for the best; bias against change assumes that change is always for the worst. To avoid both errors, give any proposal for change a fair hearing and decide, apart from your predisposition, whether the change is actually positive or negative.|
|biased consideration of evidence||One form of this error is seeking evidence that confirms your bias and ignoring evidence that challenges it. Another is interpreting evidence in a way that favors your bias. To avoid this error, begin your investigation by seeking out individuals whose views oppose your bias, then go on to those whose views support it. Also, choose the most reasonable interpretation of the evidence.|
|Double standard||Using one set of criteria for judging arguments we agree with and another standard for judging arguments we disagree with. To avoid this error, decide in advance what judgment criteria you will use and apply those criteria consistently, regardless of whether the data in question support your view.|
|Hasty conclusion||A premature judgment – that is, a judgment made without sufficient evidence. To avoid drawing a hasty conclusion, identify all possible conclusions before you select any one. Then decide whether you have sufficient evidence to support any of those conclusions and, if so, which conclusion that is.|
|Overgeneralization and stereotyping||Overgeneralization is ascribing to all the members of a group a quality that fits only some members. A stereotype is an overgeneralization that is rigidly maintained. To avoid thest errors, resist the urge to force individual people, places and things into hard categories. And keep in mind that the more limited your experience, the more modest your assertions should be.|
|Oversimplification||Oversimplification goes beyond making complex ideas easier to grasp - it twists and distorts the ideas. Instead of informing people, oversimplification misleads them. To avoid this error, refuse to adopt superficial views and make a special effort to understand issues in their complexity.|
|Post hoc fallacy||This error is rooted in the idea that when one thing occurs after another, it must be the result of the other, when in reality the sequence may be coincidental. To avoid the post hoc fallacy, withhold judgment of a cause-and-effect relationship until you have ruled out other possible causes, including coincidence.|
|Contradiction||To claim that a statement is both true and false at the same time in the same way. to avoid this error, monitor what you say and write. The moment you detect any inconsistency, examine it carefully. Decide whether it is explainable or whether it constitutes a contradiction. If it is a contradiction, revise your statement to make it consistent and reasonable.|
|Arguing in a circle||Attempting to prove a statement by repeating it in a different form. To avoid this error, check your arguments to be sure you are offering genuine evidence and not merely repeating your claim.|
|Meaningless statement||A statement in which the reasoning presented makes no sense. To avoid this error, check to be sure that the reasons you offer to explain your thoughts and actions really do explain them.|
|Mistaken authority||Ascribing authority to someone who does not possess it. To avoid this error, check to be sure that all the sources you cite as authorities possess expertise in the particular subject you are writing or speaking about.|
|False analogy||An analogy is an attempt to explain something relatively unfamiliar by referring to something different but more familiar, saying, in effect” This is like that”. A false analogy claims similarities that do not withstand scrutiny. To avoid this error, test your analogies to be sure that the similarities they claim are real and reasonable and that no important dissimilarities exist.|
|Irrational appeal||Appeals to emotion, tradition, moderation, authority, common belief and tolerance may be either rational or irrational. they are irrational, and therefore unacceptable, when they are unreasonable in the particular situation under discussion and / or when they discourage thought. To avoid this error, make sure your appeals complement thought rather than substitue for it.|
|Automatic rejection||The refusal to give criticism of your ideas or behaviors a fair hearing. To avoid this error, thinking of your ideas as possessions that you can keep or discard rather than as extension of your ego. This will make you less defensive about them.|
|Changing the subject||Abruptly and deceptively turning a discussion away from the issue under discussion. To avoid this error, face difficult questions head on rather than trying to avoid them.|
|Shifting the burden of proof||Demanding that others disprove our assertions. To avoid this error, understand that the burden of supporting any assertion rests with the person who makes it rather than the one who questions it. Accept the responsibility of supporitng your assertions.|
|Straw man||To commit the error of straw man is to put false words in someone else’s mouth and then expose their falsity, vonverniently forgetting that the other person never said them. To avoid this error, be scrupulously accurate in quoting or paraphrasing other people’s words.|
|Attacking the critic||Attempting to discredit an idea or argument by disparaging the person who expressed it. To avoid attacking the critic, focus your critical thinking on ideas rather than the people who express them.|
这里，Sam踩了哪些坑？第一个就是mindless conformity，在朋友的怂恿下，不质疑地接受了抽烟，然后是either / or outlook， 认为只有两种方法去解决抽烟带来的成本问题，要么拿父母的钱继续抽，要么不抽烟，其实可以有第三种，Sam自己去做兼职赚钱抽烟，后面他自己换上哮喘，依然固执地将这个归于过敏，这是face-saving，他对外科医生有关吸烟有害的回应，犯了unwarranted assumption的错误，认为每个人都了解吸烟的方方面面，有权利去决定是否被伤害，而实际上很多人可能并不真的了解吸烟的危害。对于烟草公司的问题，他也是毫无根据地假定富有的人是不会做为了赚钱做坏事的。
|is stated directly||is stated directly||is unstated but implied|
|occurs as a simple assertion or as the premise of an argument||occurs as the conclusion of an argument||Often is a hidden premise in an argument|
|distorts reality by misstatement or omission||fails to account for one or more significant items of evidence||may be either warranted or unwarranted.|
Knowing the right terminology is advantageous, but more important is recognizing where reasoning has gone wary and being able to explain the error in terms of the issue involved.