Lecture 05 Melody - Notes, Scales, Nuts and Bolts

  • The Nature of Melody

    melody shows up in the high range.


    because the way sound waves operate.

    The higher frequencies take a lot shorter time to clear.

    melodies play faster notes because those sounds clear quickly and we can hear and enjoy the melody.

  • The Development of Notes and the Scale

    五线谱,每条线之间的frequency /space 是一样的。

    重复八度:octave duplication。

    很多国家的音乐中,都应用了octave duplication.

    west: ABCDEFG,seven notes within the octave.

    Indonesia: six notes within the octave.

    Example: Ravi Shankar’s raga, 用的乐器 sitar 是一种类似吉他的印度弦乐器

    China: five-note within the octave.

    Example: 阿炳的《二泉映月》


    ancient Greeks were very much into mathematics as a way of explaining the world and explaining music in particular.


  • Major, Minor, and Chromatic Scales in World Music

    • seven notes within the scale of the major scale

    • seven notes within the scale of the minor scale



    升号 sharp # VS 降号b flat【相当于键盘上的黑键音】


    black notes, can be called sharps or flats. flats are below, take you down a half step, while sharps take you up a half step.

    C大调音阶:按钢琴上的白键 CDEFGABC,正好对应着 1-1-1/2-1-1-1-1/2

    C小调音阶:按钢琴上的白键CD,DE间的黑键降E,白键FG,GA间的黑键降A,AB间的黑键降B,白键C,正好对应着1-1/2-1-1-1/2-1-1, 即 C D E-flat F G A-flat B-flat C


    A大调音阶:按钢琴上的白键AB,CD间的黑键升C,白键DE,FG间的黑键升F,GA间的黑键升G,白键A。即A B C-sharp D E F-sharp G-sharp A

    A小调音阶:白键 ABCDEFGA

    tonic note: the primary note

    leading tone:pull into the tonic,引出 tonic note,it is always the seventh degree. It’s always a half step.

    例子:Luciano Pavarotti 歌唱片段。

    Most of our popular music, folk songs and things like that, are written in duple meter and in a major key. Occasionally, you get things written in triple meter and in a minor key — minor key.

    example:Gershwin Porgy and Bess,【感觉是duple,minor】


    这里教授举了Beethoven’s Third Symphony 第二乐章 minor部分和 Mozart 的作品片段 。

    Major: happy, bright, optimistic.

    Minor: somber. 【灰暗,昏暗】


    back to sixteenth century, people started writing these things called madrigals, that were tied to texts. And they got in this habit of, every time they had a bright, happy text, they’d set this in one kind of mode or key — a major mode — and every time they had a sad one, they’d set it in minor.

    后面教授放了一段犹太人的音乐Traditional Jewish folk music【major 和 minor 之间的界线有点懵逼】

    chromatic scale: 半音阶,chromatic 来自希腊语chroma色彩,附加的五个音高的确为音乐增加了色彩。


    chromaticism adds tension to music and especially chromaticism that’s pulling up.

  • Pitch and Rhythm in Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony


    Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony 第一乐章,前面部分。


    texture织体: polyphonic.复式