Lecture 09 Sonata-Allegro Form - Mozart and Beethoven

lecture 9~lecture 11, lecture13~lecture14 都是讲曲式的。

let’s pursue the issue of musical form.

  • Verse-Chorus Form in Popular Music

    Form is particularly important in all types of music.

    What’s the most common form that one encounters when dealing with pop songs?

    “verse and chorus” structure. 或教授的 “strophe and refrain” structure.

    Frederick Evans 举了NSYNC的“Bye Bye Bye” 说明流行音乐中的“verse and chorus” structure.


    It’s half of the chorus or so when it starts and then there’s verse, chorus, verse, chorus and then what I call the bridge, which is like an emotional climax. And then the last one is a really powerful chorus where they just bring it home and then the music fades away.

    这里,教授听“Bye Bye Bye” 后,提到了Lament bass悲叹低音。

    Google了下什么是Lament bass。【看不懂,先码上】

    半音化四度(chromatic fourth,或 passus duriusculus)是一段横跨纯四度,并覆盖了这个四度中几乎所有半音程的旋律或旋律片段。

    在巴洛克和古典主义时代的歌剧中,半音化四度常见于低音声部,被用在悲伤的咏叹调中。这种创作技法被称作“悲叹的低音(lament bass)”



  • Introduction to Form in Classical Music


    genre 在音乐中,是simply musical type.

    symphony,string quartet,concerto,ballet, opera,classical New Orleans jazz,Blues 等都属于 genre。


    每一个movement 由特定的form构成。each of the movements is informed by a particular form。

    以string quartet 弦乐四重奏为例:


    通常是四乐章的作品,首尾两乐章通常是快板,中间的乐章,在古典四重奏中是慢板和舞曲(如小步舞曲或谐谑曲)。【快板- 慢板-舞曲-快板, fast, slow, minuet, scherzo, fast,有些类似交响曲】


    When we’re hearing a piece of music and all this stuff is coming at us we want to make sense of it by knowing approximately where we are. Am I still toward the beginning? Am I in the middle of this thing? Am I getting anywhere near the end of it? How should I respond at this particular point?


    • ternary form 三段曲式
    • sonata allegro form 奏鸣曲式-快板
    • theme and variations 主题和变奏
    • rondo 回旋曲
    • fugue 赋格曲
    • ostinato 固定音型/固定低音

    其中, sonata-allegro is the hardest, the most complex, the most difficult of all of these forms.

    通常奏鸣曲-快板 出现在 sonata, concerto, string quartet, symphony 等体裁作品的第一乐章。

    slow movement, 则可能是 theme and variations 或者 rondo 或者 ternary form.

    小步舞曲或谐谑曲几乎总是三段曲式 ternary form。


  • Ternary Form

    以Beethoven’s “Für Elise”为例,介绍 Ternary Form。

    三段式就是简单的ABA, statement, contrast, statement.

    simply the idea of presentation, diversion, re-presentation or statement, digression, restatement — anything like this.

    这里,介绍了一下 relative major and minor 的概念。【完全懵逼,后面过第二轮的时候,再好好理解下】

  • The Sonata-Allegro Form in Mozart’s “A Little Night Music”


    • exposition 呈示部


    • development 发展部


      the most polyphonic of any section in the piece. There’s a lot of counterpoint usually to be found in the development section.

    • recapitulation 再现部


    结尾coda, 顾名思义,用来结束全曲。

    Codas generally are very static harmonically.

    Italian coda means tail, and these can be, like all tails, long or short. Mozart happened to like short codas. Beethoven liked longer codas.


    以Mozart’s Eine kleine Nachtmusik 为例:



    1 第一乐章:快板
    2 第二乐章:浪漫曲(行板)
    3 第三乐章:小步舞曲和中间乐段(稍快板)
    4 第四乐章:回旋曲(快板)

    听第一乐章 奏鸣曲结构, a beautiful example of sonata-allegro form.

    【赏析部分完全懵逼了,listening,just listening。】

  • The Sonata-Allegro Form in Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony

    Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony 第五交响曲第一乐章。



    开头部分,没有引子no introduction.just starts off with his first motive there, a four-note motive.


    You get a sense of moving from point A to point B or from first theme to second theme.


    随后,一个新的抒情主题加入,以小提琴开启。a new lyrical theme comes in

    音越来越高,Building up dynamics and pitch.

    在最后结束的时候,closing theme,用了 arpeggio 琶音。 是一个relative major,一个相对大三和弦。

    注意听旋律,the closing theme , just a different configuration of that short, short, short long motive. 然后我们进入development。


    start with four-note motive.

    then, modulates through different keys.

    modulating to a higher key there.

    then, begins to build up in terms of pitch, taking it up higher and higher and higher, bring full of tension, 贝多芬用了diminished triad来营造不安和紧张。

    中间教授弹了一段 Mozart的K.545第一乐章的开头部分,哈哈,大饼练的那首,我竟然听出来了,开心!

    then starts playing around with just two notes.

    And then breaks it down to just one note, once again reaching for the essence here. That sounds like high, low, high, low.

    and finally this sort of insistent motive just breaks down the door and then the recapitulation can begin.