Lecture 23 Review of Musical Style



  • Introduction


    期末考试的时候,是放一段音乐,然后识别出它是什么,作曲家是谁。「you’re responsible for identifying the name of the composer and the name of the piece.」

  • Identifying Different Musical Styles


    What’s the most important thing when trying to identify style? 【识别音乐风格中,最主要的因素是什么?】


    if you hear lots of percussion and xylophones and things such as that banging away in a dissonant fashion, those instruments just weren’t there in time of Mozart, for example, so you know it’s got to be probably late nineteenth-century and on. 【如果有大量的打击乐器,可能是19世纪以后的音乐】

    some instruments are common to many different periods.if you hear a piano, it can’t be Renaissance or medieval; it can’t be Baroque. It could be Classical, Romantic, Impressionist, or Modern, and then on the basis of other things you would come to a conclusion about the style period.【钢琴自Mozart始,所以如果曲子中有钢琴,则可以排除中世纪和巴洛克时期】


    • volume,反映出乐队orchestra的大小,19世纪末20世纪初的乐队阵容很大,如果音量很大,可能是浪漫主义后期的音乐。「Mahler wrote a “Symphony of a Thousand,” he called it. He had almost a thousand performers in it.」
    • harmony 和声。the more unexpected it becomes probably the later you are, the more into the Romantic period you are.【和声越出人意料,越可能是浪漫主义时期的音乐】
    • the element of consonance versus dissonance 【和谐音与不和谐音】a little bit of dissonance in the Impressionist period and then heavy in the Modernist period, and then it actually backs down in the Post-modern period.【不和谐音越多,越靠后】

    练习一段浪漫主义时期的音乐,Ravel’s Daphnis and Chloe,拉威尔的芭蕾舞剧《达夫尼与克罗埃》,识别要点:

    • large, colorful orchestra

    • consonant

    • Parallel motion, Those woodwinds were all going up and down in the same direction。【木管乐器沿着相同的方向上升和下降】

    • A glissando 【滑奏,这个确实很明显】




    • 第一部分:面包神与众美少女们之祭坛前
    • 第二部分:海盗布鲁艾希斯之阵营
    • 第三部分(与第一部分相同):祭坛前方
  • Review of Gregorian Chants

    练习一段中世纪和文艺复兴时期的音乐,格里高利圣咏, written by Thomas Tallis, 识别要点:

    • multiple unaccompanied voices 【多重独立的声部】
    • Mostly polyphonic,imitative.【复调,模仿的复调】
  • Listening Exercises for Modernist and Classical Music

    练习识别一段现代时期的音乐,Ellen Zwilich‘s Celebration, 识别要点:

    • A lot of percussion, particularly the tympani. 【打击乐器,特别是定音鼓】
    • A lot of dissonance【大量不和谐音】
    • A lot of brass
    • lots of ostinatos【大量固定反复】

    练习识别 Mozart’s Bassoon Concerto 【巴松管协奏曲】,识别要点:

    • Regular meter
    • strings in the foreground
    • solo instrument:Bassoon
    • the solo instrument is playing something kind of simple, kind of impressive
    • You should hear lots of little trills and weeping all over the place 【听到颤音】
  • Distinguishing Classical and Romantic Music


    • the size of the orchestra

      in Romantic music the orchestra has many more and many varied instruments in it ranging from top piccolo down to middle English horn down to bottom contrabass, bassoon, tuba and things like that.【浪漫主义时期的管弦乐队,元素更多元更丰富】

    • the themes and the melodies etc.

      The regularity of the themes and the balance and symmetry is part and parcel of the Classical period.

      You move into the Romantic. You have expansive themes, but by way of contradistinction there, then the rhythm becomes not necessarily more flaccid, but more loose, and we talked about this phenomenon of rubato, for example. So flexible rhythms, flexible tempos, less clear meters in the Romantic period.【浪漫主义时期,主题明朗,节奏松弛舒缓】

      this warm, rich melody, is very important in Romantic music.

  • Final Exercise and Conclusion

    最后一首练习曲,是巴洛克时期 Baroque period 的音乐,使用了乐器大键琴harpsichord,使用了fugue。